Canine Pregnancy & Postpartum Diseases Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Theriogenology > Canine Pregnancy & Postpartum Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Canine Pregnancy & Postpartum Diseases Deck (40):
1

________ neoplasia is the 2nd most common tumor type in the dog

mammary

2

A definitive diagnosis for pregnancy in bitches is based on:

  • Measurement of Progesterone 21 days after mating
  • Measurement of Estrone Sulfate 35 ays after fertilization
  • Measurement of Relaxin 28 days after fertilization
  • Measurement of body temperature 19 days in diestrus

Measurement of Relaxin 28 days after fertilization 

3

Placentation in the dog is best classified as:

  • Zonary endotheliochorial
  • Diffuse endotheliochorial
  • Zonary hemochorial
  • Diffuse hemochorial
  • Cotyledonary

Zonary endotheliochorial

4

Supplementation of calcium during gestation in the dog can predispose the bitch to __________

eclampsia​

5

T/F: OHE is the treatment of choice for both open and closed pyometra

TRUE

6

Passage of placentas occurs in the ____ stage of parturition in the bitch

3rd

  • Retention is rare - consider if purulent discharge occurs postpartum
  • Most are passed immediately following fetus within 15 min

7

Gestation length in the bitch is _____ days after onset of diestrus

56-57 days

8

T/F: Uterine prolapse has an increased incidence in bitches who have undergone dystocia

True

9

T/F: The presence of a benign mammary tumor increases the chances of developing a malignant mass

True

10

Intact female dogs have 7x the risk of developing mammary tumors than OHE bitches.

  • If spayed before the 1st estrous cycle, the risk of malignant mammary tumors is _____
  • If spayed after the 1st estrous cycle, the risk is _____
  • If spayed after the 2nd estrous cycle, the risk is _____

  • If spayed before the 1st estrous cycle, the risk of malignant mammary tumors is 0.5%
  • If spayed after the 1st estrous cycle, the risk is 8%
  • If spayed after the 2nd estrous cycle, the risk is 26%
  • If cycled more than twice or >2.5 years of age, there is a loss of sparing effect

11

Gestation length in the bitch is _____ days from LH peak

65 days

12

T/F: Dark green or malodorous vaginal discharge prior to whelping is normal and is termed lochia

False

Dark green or malodorous vaginal discharge prior to whelping is a sign of dystocia

13

What is the most common maternal cause of dystocia in the bitch?

primary uterine inertia

14

T/F: Large breed dogs are predisposed to eclampsia

False

Occurs primarily in small nervous breeds

15

This is Type ____ vaginal prolapse

Type 3

entire vaginal circumference (doughnut)

16

What is the treatment of choice for hypocalcemic tetany (eclampsia)?

IV calcium gluconate to effect

17

T/F: Eclampsia in the bitch is a condition that is likely to recur

True

18

T/F: E. coli is the most likely etiological cause of cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex in the bitch

False

  • E. coli is seen as a secondary bacteria infection.
  • CEH is the primary pathology
    • ​In the normal bitch, you'll see increased numbers of P4 receptors. Estrogen receptors down-regulated due to increasing P4 in diestrus
    • In CEH dogs, normal down-regulation of estrogen receptors (due to increasing P4) may be defective, so CEH dogs get prolonged effects of E2 on endometrium

19

Normal fetal heart rate in the dog Is approximately:

200-250 bpm

20

What is the drug of choice to induce parturition in the bitch as long as there is no obstruction to the birth canal?

Oxytocin

Diagnose obstruction by digital exam, ultrasound and radiographs

21

T/F: The most accurate estimate of gestation length is the length of time from the breeding date

False

This is the LEAST accurate estimation of gestation length

22

Progesterone levels can be helpful for prediction of whelping date. Serum progesterone levels of 10ng/mL corresponds to approximately _____ hours to whelping

36 hours

Levels decrease to about 4 ng/ml 18 hours prepartum and 2 ng/ml at 9 hours prepartum

23

For pregnancy diagnosis in the bitch, radiography is safe after _____ days and can be used to count the number of fetuses

40 days

Best done one week prior to due date

24

In the case of metritis in the bitch, ______ is used to evacuate the uterus

PGF2a

If uterine wall <1-2 mm thick, avoid ecbolics so that there is no risk of rupturing uterus 

25

T/F: Cystic endometrial hyperplasia-pyometra complex is an acute or chronic post-partum disease with variable clinical signs and pathologic findings in the bitch

False

CEH-Pyometra complex is an acute or chronic post-estrual disease with variable clinical signs and pathologic findings in the bitch

26

T/F: False pregnancy predisposes the bitch to reproductive tract diseases

False

27

When does Relaxin begin to rise during gestation in the bitch?

  • 10-20 days
  • 20-30 days
  • 30-40 days
  • 40-50 days
  • 50-60 days

20-30 days

28

A drop in body temperature 24 hours prior to whelping in the bitch indicates a drop in ________

progesterone

Progesterone is “thermogenic”

29

When can uterine prolapse occur in a bitch?

  • Pre-Partum
  • During Parturition
  • Post-Partum
  • B and C only
  • All of the above

B and C only​

Occurs during or following parturition

30

What is the gold standard modality for diagnosis of pyometra?

ultrasound

31

Which of the following are fetal causes of dystocia in the dog?

  • Primary Uterine Inertia
  • Secondary Uterine Inertia
  • Fetal presentation/position
  • B and C only
  • All of the above

Fetal presentation/position

32

Inflammation of entire uterus (endometrium and myometrium) is termed:

metritis

33

T/F: PGF2a (Lutalyse® or Estrumate) can be used for medical therapy of open or closed pyometra

False

PGF2a (Lutalyse® or Estrumate) is usually only used for medical therapy of open pyometra; may rupture the uterus with closed pyometra

Causes smooth muscle (myometrial) contractions for uterine evacuation

34

Pregnancy in the bitch can be diagnosed via abdominal palpation at ______ days

21-28 days

Feeling for a "string of pearls" - difficult after day 35

35

Spontaneous flow of milk from mammary gland unassociated with pregnancy is termed:

galactorrhea

36

T/F: Ultrasound is an accurate way to diagnose pregnancy but not the number of fetuses present in the bitch

True

37

Which one of the following is not a differential diagnosis for tissue protruding from the vulva?

  • Vaginal hyperplasia
  • Enlarged clitoris of an intersex
  • Subinvoluted placental sites
  • Transmissible venereal disease

Subinvoluted placental sites​

38

The type of vaginal prolapse in the bitch that extrudes the floor and walls through the vulva and looks like a pear is Type ____

Type 2

39

Vaginal prolapse should regress after ovulation. What drug(s) can you administer to induce ovulation in this case?

GnRH or hCG

40

T/F: Surgery is always recommended for both benign and malignant mammary tumors

True