Carbohydrate Metabolism (3 lectures) (Note: + means induces, - means represses) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Carbohydrate Metabolism (3 lectures) (Note: + means induces, - means represses) Deck (121):
1

Standard values for 75 gram oral glucose:
1) Fasting
2) 1 Hour
3) 2 hour

1) 60-100 mg/dL
2) less than 200 mg/dL
3) less than 140 mg/dL

2

Glycemic index

Indicator of how rapidly glucose levels rise (after eating food)

3

1) GI of fruit, veggies, milk
2) GI of corn flakes, baked potatoes

1) less than 50
2) greater than 70

4

Hormones regulating metabolism

Insulin, Glucagon, Epinephrine, and Cortisol

5

How does insulin regulate metabolism?

Promotes fuel storage after meal, promotes growth
It binds to receptors on muscle, adipose tissue, and stimulates GLUT4 receptors

6

Where is insulin produced?

It is produced as a pre-pro-hormone in the beta cell of the islets of Langerhans (pancreas) and is stored in vesicles for release. It responds directly to increased intracellular glucose through the GLUT2 receptor

7

What is the mechanism of the response (of insulin from the GLUT2 receptor)?

Increasing [ATP] in the cell inhibits an ATP dependent potassium channel that depolarizes the cell and allows extracellular calcium to enter

8

The insulin receptor, ____, is membrane bound and is a ____.

GLUT4,
tyrosine kinase receptor

9

How does glucagon regulate metabolism?

It mobilizes fuel, maintains blood glucose during fasting
It acts through a glucagon receptor that activates a G-protein, an ATP cyclase, and a cAMP dependent kinase

10

Where is glucagon produced?

The peptide hormone is produced in a pre-pro form in the alpha cells of the pancreas. It's release is directly suppressed by glucose and insulin

11

How does epinephrine regulate metabolism?

It mobilizes fuel during acute stress.
It activates glycogen phosphorylase to release glucose but does not stimulate gluconeogenesis.
In muscle it activates a G protein and an adenylate cyclase to activate protein kinase A (similar to glucagon). In liver it binds alpha-agonist receptor signals through IP3 and calcium to activate multiple kinases

12

How does cortisol regulate metabolism?

It alters long term metabolism. It binds an intracellular receptor and moves to the nucleus where it controls the gene trascription. It stimulates gluconeogenesis and fatty acid release from adipose tissue (influences long-term fuel mobilization).

13

Epinephrine is also known as ___.

adrenaline

14

Cortisol is also known as ___.

Glucocorticoid

15

The major anabolic hormone in the body

insulin

16

Insulin stimulates

Protein synthesis, glycogen synthesis, and triglyceride synthesis

17

Preproinsulin has an ____ that is cleaved when perproinsulin becomes proinsulin.

N-terminal signal peptide

18

Proinsulin is cleaved in ___ location(s) to form mature insulin (A and B chains). The internal peptide cleaved from insulin is called the ____ and can be measured to distinguish endogenous insulin from injected insulin.

two,
C-peptide

19

What releases vesicles of insulin?

calcium

20

____ closes potassium channels and stimulates ___ influx, which is useful with patients that have functional beta cells (type _ diabetes)

Sulfonylureas (glipizide, glyburide),
calcium,
II (two)

21

Insulin peaks about __ minutes after high carbohydrate meals

45

22

What does salivary amylase do?

It digests starch to maltose (disaccharide of glucose), trisaccharides, and dextrins (4-9 glucosyl units)

23

What does stomach acid to?

It inactivates amylase (I'm not positive why but that's what the slide says)

24

What occurs in the duodenum?

Neutralization of acid, alpha-amylase from pancreas forms more maltose, ditrisaccharides, dextrins

25

What enzymes are present in the small intestine brush border complexes?

glucoamylase (cleaves alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds), sucrase-isomaltase, trehalase (cleaves threhalose found in mushrooms) and lactase (cleaves lactose into glucose, galactose)

26

What does glucoamylase do?

Cleaves alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds

27

What does lactase do?

Cleaves lactose into glucose and galactose

28

Where are GLUT1 receptors?

RBCs, brain endothelial cells (High affinity for glucose)

29

Where are GLUT2 receptors?

pancreas, liver (low affinity for glucose)

30

Where are GLUT3 receptors?

neurons

31

Where are GLUT4 receptors?

fat, muscle, heart (insulin induced)

32

Where are GLUT5 receptors?

testis (actually a fructose transporter)

33

How is glucose absorbed into cells?

Through a GLUT family of transporters

34

What happens in lactose intolerance?

lactase on the intestinal brush border begins to decrease (which is natural) and lactose is not absorbed and is instead metabolized by colonic bacteria. This causes gas and diarrhea (methane is made, the osmotic effect creates diarrhea)

35

Some sugars that are undigested

raffinose, soluble fiber (pectin, gums)

36

What are the fates of glucose-6-phosphate?

lactate, ribose and NADPH, glucose (serum glucose levels), or Co2 and water (TCA cycle). Also glycogen.

37

a)Function of glycogen
1) in muscle
2) in liver

a)Glucose reserve
1) provides glucose for glycolysis during anaerobic exercise
2) Glycogen is degraded and the glucose released into the blood stream to support serum levels during fasting

38

What is glycogen?

Branched chain of glucose molecules connected by alpha-1,4 linkages and alpha-1,6 branches

39

What protein is associated with glycogen synthesis?

Glycogen synthesis initiates on the protein glycogenin (autoglycosylation with UDP-glucose on Tyr)

40

UDP-glucose is added to the ____ end of the glycogen molecule by ___.

non-reducing,
glycogen synthase

41

Chains over ___ residues are ____ and attached via ____ to create a branch site. (Glycogen)

11,
hydrolyzed,
alpha-1,6

42

What vitamin is required to convert glycogen to glucose?

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)

43

Phosphorylase stalls within __ glucose units of a branch. (releasing glycogen)

four

44

Glycogen degradation II debranching enzyme has both ___ and ___ activity and transfers ___ glucose units.

transferase,
hydrolase,
3

45

What is McArdle's disease?

It is a lack of muscle glycogen phosphorylase. It causes rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria.

46

What regulates glycogen phosphorylase?

Phosphorylase-kinase activates/phosphorylates it (glycogen phosphorylase-b). cAMP increases activity and phosphoprotein phosphatase (which is activated by insulin) inactivates or dephosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase-a.

47

Phosphorylase-kinase ____ phophorylase-b.

Phosphorylates/activates

48

Phosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase is ____.

The activated form of glycogen phosphorylase

49

Protein kinase A _____ phosphorylase-kinase, which ____ phosphorylase-kinase.

phosphorylates,
activates

50

Phosphoprotein phosphatase ____ glycogen phosphorylase

inactivates (removes a phosphate group from glycogen phosphorylase-a)

51

cAMP ___ phosphoprotein phosphate

inhibits

52

What inactivates glycogen synthase?

glycogen synthase kinase, protein kinase C (diacylglycerol, Ca++), calmodulin-dependent kinase (Ca++), phosphorylase kinase (Ca++, cAMP), and protein kinase A (Ca++, cAMP) all inactivate glycogen synthase-a

53

True or False: Glucagon has no effect on muscle.

True

54

How does glucagon affect the liver?

It causes phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (inactive form) and glycogen phosphorylase (active form)

55

In muscle, AMP is an ____ of glycogen phosphorylase.

allosteric activator

56

True or false: AMP has little effect on liver glycogen phosphorylase

True

57

Glycogen storage disease 1
1) Enzyme affected
2) Name
3) Primary organ involved
4) Symptoms

1) Glucose-6-phosphatase
2) Von-Gierke's
3) Liver
4) Within a few months of birth: severe hypoglycemia, epinephrine secretion > stimulates fatty acid release > increase VLDL made in liver

58

Glycogen storage disease 2
1) Enzyme affected
2) Name
3) Primary organ involved

1) Lysosomal alpha-glucosidase
2) Pompe's disease
3) All organs

59

Glycogen storage disease 3
1) Enzyme affected
2) Primary organ involved

1) Amylo 1,6-glucosidase (debrancher)
2) liver, skeletal muscle, heart

60

Glycogen storage disease 4
1) Enzyme affected
2) Primary organ involved

1) Amylo 4,6-glucosidase (debrancher)
2) liver

61

Glycogen storage disease 5
1) Enzyme affected
2) Name
3) Primary organ involved
4) Symptoms

1) Muscle glycogen phosphorylase
2) McArdle's disease
3) Skeletal muscle
4) exercise induced cramps, muscle pain. Typically diagnosed in 2nd or 3rd decade of life due to exercise intolerance

62

Glycogen storage disease 6
1) Enzyme affected
2) Name
3) Primary organ involved

1) Liver glycogen phosphorylase
2) Herr's disease
3) Liver

63

Glycogen storage disease 7
1) Enzyme affected
2) Primary organ involved

1) Phosphofructokinase
2) Liver, muscle, RBC

64

Glycogen storage disease 8
1) Enzyme affected
2) Primary organ involved

1) Phosphorylase kinase
2) Liver

65

Glycogen storage disease 9
1) Enzyme affected
2) Primary organ involved

1) Protein kinase A (cAMP dependent)
2) Liver

66

Gluconeogenesis

The pathway used to support serum glucose levels during fasting and starvation particularly for those tissues that cannot switch to ketone bodies (RBCs, renal medulla)

67

What are the primary sources for glucose production?

Lactate, alanine, and glycerol (minor source: propionate)

68

Where does gluconeogenesis occur?

Liver

69

What is the starting point for gluconeogenesis from lactate?

Pyruvate

70

How much ATP is required to convert pyruvate to glucose?

6

71

Enzymes used to convert pyruvate to phosphoenol pyruvate

pyruvate carboxylase (in mitochondria) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (in cytoplasm)

72

What vitamin is required for pyruvate carboxylase to function?

Biotin (Vitamin B7)

73

Fatty acid oxidation coordinates with gluconeogenesis in what ways?

ATP provided for gluconeogenesis; FA oxidation increases acetyl-CoA and NADH, which activate pyruvate DH kinase and inhibit pyruvate DH; High acetyl-CoA activates pyruvate carboxylase to form oxaloacetate; oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA form citrate which inhibits PFK-1 (glycolysis); High ATP/ADP ratio inhibits PFK and pyruvate kinase

74

What enzymes does cAMP activate?

G6P-phosphatase, F-1,6-bisphosphatase, and PEP carboxykinase

75

What enzymes does cAMP inactivate or inhibit?

PFK-1, glucokinase, and pyruvate kinase

76

What are the regulators for glucose-6-phosphatase?

+cAMP, -insulin

77

What are the regulators for glucokinase?

+insulin, -cAMP, -Glucose-6-phosphate

78

What are the regulators for phosphofructokinase-1?

+AMP, +fructose-2,6-phosphate,
-ATP, -cAMP, -citrate

79

What are the regulators for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase?

+cAMP, -AMP, -Fructose-2,6-phosphate, (Also +citrate)

80

What are the regulators for phophoenolpyruvate carboxykinase?

+cAMP (that's all that's on the slide)

81

What are the regulators for pyruvate kinase?

+Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate,
-alanine, -ATP, -citrate, -cAMP

82

What are the regulators for pyruvate carboxylase?

+acetyl-CoA, -ADP, -insulin

83

What are the regulators for pyruvate dehydrogenase?

-acetyl-CoA, -NADH

84

What enzymes are active under fasting conditions?

Glucose-6-phosphatase, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate phosphatase, Pyruvate carboxylase, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (it's synthesized so I assume it's activated and it's going in the right direction?), "phosphorylase" (WHICH FUCKING ONE? IF WE'RE EXPECTED TO BE SPECIFIC WHY ARE YOU NOT?)

85

Which enzymes are inhibited during fasting?

Glucokinase (sequestered in nucleus), PFK2 (phosphofructokinase-2), PFK-1 (phosphofructokinase-1), pyruvate kinase, PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase)

86

There's a slide marked key regulatory points and I'm just like, no. This was just on the last slide. Put it on the last slide.

Freebie cuz yeah you deserve it. Keep it up mothafuckahs

87

Substrates required for gluconeogenesis

glycerol (from adipose tissue), lactate from muscle (exercise), red blood cells, amino acids when diet is high in amino acids and low in carbs

88

So you just answered which enzymes are activated under fasting conditions, so if you can repeat that you're good. but if not, there's three you need to know. You also need to know when they're activated and inhibited. Go. (Slide 25)

"High glucagon inhibits PYRUVATE KINASE due to phosphorylation by protein kinase A (prevents conversion of PEP to pyruvate)
PHOSPHOENOLPYRUVATE CARBOXYKINASE synthesis increases as a result of phosphorylation of transcription factors (CREB - cAMP Response Element - Binding) Also include cortisol by different binding protein.
PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE is inhibited by acetyl CoA and NADH. Both are high during beta-oxidation"
Yay. This card is over! But seriously try to know this at least.

89

Four enzymes are regulated by glucagon and epinephrine. Name those bitches.

pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxykinase, Glucose-6-phosphatase, Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase

90

Cori cycle in a nutshell

release of lactate from muscles, conversion by liver into glucose and release into bloodstream

91

Alanine cycle in a nutshell

release of alanine by muscle, conversion by liver into glucose and release into bloodstream

92

That stupid video we watched, it talked about fructose. What was the gist of what the guy was saying?

Don't eat fructose because it's toxic because only the liver can break it down and this guy thinks it's the primary reason for obesity and insulin resistance

(and Forney gave it the okay and put it in the lecture. I think I'm being judgmental of this guy because he kinda sounded fishy but he's done more research on this than I have so he knows more.)

93

Glucose-6-phosphate is converted to ___ to become part of the pentose phosphate pathway.

6-Phosphogluconate

94

Glucose-6-Phosphate is converted to ___ before becoming glycogen.

UDP-glucose

95

What does the pentose phosphate pathway create (according to slide 28)?

ribose, NADPH

96

What is NADPH used for?

fatty acid synthesis, glutathione reductase, cholesterol, and steroid hormone synthesis, p450 detoxification in liver

97

What enzyme converts glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phophogluconate?

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

98

What enzyme converts 6-phosphogluconate to ribose-5-phosphate?

6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase

99

What other molecule can be converted to ribose? (techincally ribose-5-phosphate)

fructose-6-phosphate

100

What molecule is required for the conversion of g-6-p to ribose-5-phosphate? (not the enzyme)

NADP+ (2 of them)

101

What are the key points of the oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway? (Important card)

generates NADPH (2 per G6P) for biosynthesis or reductive reactions (only source of NADPH for RBC) and ribulose-5-phosphate (1 per G6P) for nucleotides
key enzyme: glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase

102

What are the key points of the nonoxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway? (also important card)

Generates different sugars (including ribose-5-phosphate) using transaldolase (transfers 3C keto units) and transketolase (transfers 2C keto units)

103

Transketolase requires what vitamin?

B1 or thiamine (transketolase uses TPP to transfer 2C)

104

The most common known enzyme deficiency?

Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (It confers resistance to malaria and has the same distribution as sickle-cell)

105

What are symptoms of Glucose-6-phosphate deficiency?

hemolytic anemia

106

What can exacerbate hemolytic anemia in patients with glucose-6-phosphate deficiency?

sulfa drugs, antimalarials, antipyretics, certain infections, and fava beans

107

What are heinz bodies?

They are aggregates of hemoglobin that develop when there is a deficiency of NADPH. NADPH normally reduces glutathione reductase and is part of a pathway that reduces oxidative stress. The development of heinz bodies helps mark the RBCs for degredation

108

What are some sources of fructose?

Honey, fruit, sucrose

109

What is a source of galactose?

Lactose (milk)

110

Where are fructose and galactose metabolized?

only in the liver (though the slide says some digestion is performed in the small intestine and kidney)

111

What is the first step of fructose metabolism?

Fructokinase uses ATP to convert fructose to fructose-1-phosphate and (ADP).

112

What happens to fructose-1-phosphate?

It enters the glycolysis cycle when aldolase B converts it to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (or glyceraldehyde, which triose kinase coverts to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate using ATP)

113

Fructosuria

fructokinase deficiency (benign)

114

Fructosemia

Aldolase B deficiency, hypoglycemia results

115

Only _____ can cleave fructose-1-phosphate.

Aldolase B

116

What is the rate-determining step of fructose metabolism?

Aldolase B converting fructose-1-phosphate to glyceraldehyde or dihydroxyacetone phosphate

117

Aldolase B is present in ____ .

Liver, kidneys, and intestine

118

Fructose-1-phosphate inhibits ____ .

Aldolase A, which is is used in muscle cells but also in liver cells. If aldolase B is not working and fructose is ingested, F-1-P will build up and gluconeogenesis will be prevented and the patient will be hypoglycemic.

119

What is the first step of metabolism of galactose?

galactokinase uses ATP to convert galactose to Galactose-1-Phosphate (and ADP)

120

What happens to galactose-1-phosphate?

It is converted to glucose-1-phosphate using galactose-1-phosphate Uridylytransferase (which uses UDP-glucose and creates UDP-galactose)

121

What is galactosemia?

Deficiency of galactose-1-phosphate uridylytransferase. Galactose appears in urine and it's symptoms are cataracts and mental retardation