Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (52):
Which 2 hormones are important in sugar metabolism?
Adrenaline -adrenal hormone
Insulin -pancreatic hormone
What is sucrose metabolized into?
Fructose and glucose
What is lactose metabolized into?
Galactose and glucose
What is maltose metabolized into?
Glucose and glucose
List types of monosaccharides
Glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose and fucose
List types of disaccharides
Sucrose, lactose, maltose
List free sugars (simple carbohydrates)
List polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)
Non-starches (celluloses and hemicelluloses)
How can disaccharides be hydrolyzed into 2 monosaccharides?
Addition of water molecule and help of an enzyme
What is term for low blood sugar?
What is recommended carbohydrate intake for men and women?
Men: 200-330 grams
Women: 180-230 grams
What is recommended fiber intake for men and women age 19-50
Men: 38 grams
Women: 25 grams
what are carbohydrate made up of?
CHO, in a 1:2:1 ratio
coupled with water molecules
what are carbohydrates produced by?
photosynthesis in plants
where are carbohydrates stored?
muscles of body and liver
what % should carbs be in diet?
how are carbohydrates stored in body?
broken down into glucose
what are 3 basic types of carbohydrates found in most plant foods?
free sugars (simple carbs), polysaccharides (complex carbs) and fiber
what are types of starches?
amylopectin, amylose, glycogen and dextrins
what is glycogen?
where is it stored?
form in which glucose is stored in body
stored in liver or muscles
what is lipogenesis?
when liver converts glucose to fatty acids, then triglycerides which is stored as body fats
what is lipolysis?
lower carb intake and increases exercise causes fat to be converted back into fatty acids and it is used as body fuel
where is glycogen produced?
where are sugars and starches broken down?
gastrointestinal tract by various enzymes for absorption in blood
what are disaccharides converted to?
what are polysaccharides converted to?
dextrin (converted by salivary amylase in mouth)
dextrin is a shorter chain starch
what are dextrins reduced to?
maltose by pancreatic enzyme released into small intestine
what enzyme is maltose broken down by
maltase into glucose in intestinal lining
what are the 2 types of fiber?
soluble and insoluble
what is the term when carbohydrate intake is low and hormone ineffectiveness occurs?
Where does digestion of carbs start?
Mouth with amylase
After mouth where is next place of digestion for carbs?
Small intestine with enzymes from the pancreas (no starch digesting enzymes In stomach)
What is another name for glucose?
What can glucose be hydrolyzed from?
Sucrose, lactose or maltose
What can high levels of glucose cause?
What can low levels of glucose cause?
What are sources of fructose?
Fruit juice, honey and some veggies
Can fructose be absorbed directly into blood?
Fructose is sweeter than _________?
Cane sugar (sucrose)
Which organs can fructose be changed to glucose?
Liver or small intestine
Where is galactose synthesized ?
Converted to glucose in liver and synthesized in mammary glands
What is mutation in children called where they only produce 17% of specific enzyme needed to metabolize galactose ?
Which type of Oligosaccharides help enhance growth of lactic acid producing bacteria ?
Short Oligosaccharides , especially ones containing fructose
Do starches provide more constant blood sugar level than simple sugars?
What is main component in walls of plant cells?
Can humans digest cellulose?
No, so it acts like bulking agent in stool or serves as fuel for friendly bacteria in large intestine
What types of foods is cellulose found in ?
Most veggies and fruits
What can hemicelluloses do?
Bind and absorb water
Support immune system
Boost detoxification processes in liver
Balance blood sugar
What is a type of hemicellulose used to thicken gelatin products ?
What type of structure does hemicellulose have ?
Delicate and easily broken down in acidic fluids?
What type of structure died cellulose have?
Strong snd resistance to break down by water