Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

fundamentals of nutrition > Carbohydrates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (52):
1

Which 2 hormones are important in sugar metabolism?

Adrenaline -adrenal hormone
Insulin -pancreatic hormone

2

What is sucrose metabolized into?

Fructose and glucose

3

What is lactose metabolized into?

Galactose and glucose

4

What is maltose metabolized into?

Glucose and glucose

5

List types of monosaccharides

Glucose, fructose, galactose, xylose and fucose

6

List types of disaccharides

Sucrose, lactose, maltose

7

List free sugars (simple carbohydrates)

Monosaccharides
Disaccharides
Oligosaccharides
Sugar alcohols

8

List polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates)

Starches
Non-starches (celluloses and hemicelluloses)

9

How can disaccharides be hydrolyzed into 2 monosaccharides?

Addition of water molecule and help of an enzyme

10

What is term for low blood sugar?

Hypoglycemia

11

What is recommended carbohydrate intake for men and women?

Men: 200-330 grams
Women: 180-230 grams

12

What is recommended fiber intake for men and women age 19-50

Men: 38 grams
Women: 25 grams

13

what are carbohydrate made up of?

CHO, in a 1:2:1 ratio
coupled with water molecules

14

what are carbohydrates produced by?

photosynthesis in plants

15

where are carbohydrates stored?

muscles of body and liver

16

what % should carbs be in diet?

60%

17

how are carbohydrates stored in body?

broken down into glucose

18

what are 3 basic types of carbohydrates found in most plant foods?

free sugars (simple carbs), polysaccharides (complex carbs) and fiber

19

what are types of starches?

amylopectin, amylose, glycogen and dextrins

20

what is glycogen?
where is it stored?

form in which glucose is stored in body
stored in liver or muscles

21

what is lipogenesis?

when liver converts glucose to fatty acids, then triglycerides which is stored as body fats

22

what is lipolysis?

lower carb intake and increases exercise causes fat to be converted back into fatty acids and it is used as body fuel

23

where is glycogen produced?

liver

24

where are sugars and starches broken down?

gastrointestinal tract by various enzymes for absorption in blood

25

what are disaccharides converted to?

monosaccharides

26

what are polysaccharides converted to?

dextrin (converted by salivary amylase in mouth)
dextrin is a shorter chain starch

27

what are dextrins reduced to?

maltose by pancreatic enzyme released into small intestine

28

what enzyme is maltose broken down by

maltase into glucose in intestinal lining

29

what are the 2 types of fiber?

soluble and insoluble

30

what is the term when carbohydrate intake is low and hormone ineffectiveness occurs?

ketogenisis

31

Where does digestion of carbs start?

Mouth with amylase

32

After mouth where is next place of digestion for carbs?

Small intestine with enzymes from the pancreas (no starch digesting enzymes In stomach)

33

What is another name for glucose?

Dextrose

34

What can glucose be hydrolyzed from?

Sucrose, lactose or maltose

35

What can high levels of glucose cause?

Diabetic conditions

36

What can low levels of glucose cause?

Hypoglycemia

37

What are sources of fructose?

Fruit juice, honey and some veggies

38

Can fructose be absorbed directly into blood?

Yes

39

Fructose is sweeter than _________?

Cane sugar (sucrose)

40

Which organs can fructose be changed to glucose?

Liver or small intestine

41

Where is galactose synthesized ?

Converted to glucose in liver and synthesized in mammary glands

42

What is mutation in children called where they only produce 17% of specific enzyme needed to metabolize galactose ?

Duarte variant

43

Which type of Oligosaccharides help enhance growth of lactic acid producing bacteria ?

Short Oligosaccharides , especially ones containing fructose

44

Do starches provide more constant blood sugar level than simple sugars?

Yes

45

What is main component in walls of plant cells?

Celluloses

46

Can humans digest cellulose?

No, so it acts like bulking agent in stool or serves as fuel for friendly bacteria in large intestine

47

What types of foods is cellulose found in ?

Most veggies and fruits

48

What can hemicelluloses do?

Bind and absorb water
Support immune system
Boost detoxification processes in liver
Balance blood sugar
Lower cholesterol

49

What is a type of hemicellulose used to thicken gelatin products ?

Pectin

50

What type of structure does hemicellulose have ?

Delicate and easily broken down in acidic fluids?

51

What type of structure died cellulose have?

Strong snd resistance to break down by water

52

Can fiber be broken down by enzymes or digestive juices?

No