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Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (60):
1

What are the main monosaccharides and why are they called hexoses?

Glucose
Galactose

Made of 6C

2

What are the main disaccharides?

Maltose
Lactose
Sucrose

3

What bond joins together sugar monomers?

Glycosidic

4

What do glycosidic bonds form between?

An OH group of one monomer and the anomeric carbon of another

5

Why are maltose and lactose classed as reducing sugars?

They have a free anomeric carbon 1 which can be oxidised

6

Why is sucrose not a reducing sugar?

Has no free anomeric carbon 1

7

What are the two types of polysaccharides?

Hetero and Homo

8

What is a heteropolysaccharide?

A polysaccharide made from two or more monomer species

9

What is a homopolysaccharide?

Polysaccharide made from one monomer species

10

Example of a polysaccharide?

Starch or Glycogen

11

What makes up starch?

Two glucose polymers - amylose and amyopectin

12

Difference between amylose and amylopectin?

Amylose is not branched and had alpha1-->4 bonds

Amylopectin is branched and has alpha1-->4 and alpha1-->6 bonds.

13

Is glycogen more or less branched than starch?

More

14

Why would we store glucose as glycogen?

Compactness

Glycogen has many reducing ends making it easily utilised to form glucose

Glycogen is not osmotically active yet glucose is - easier to keep glycogen in a cell than it is glucose.

15

Why is glycogen osmotically inactive?

Polymers form hydrated gels

16

Proteins with a carbohydrate attached are called?

Glycoproteins

17

Benefits of a glycoprotein?

Increased solubility

Influences conformation and folding

Protects it from degradation

Acts as a cell to cell communicator

18

Where are the 3 locations of carb digestion?

Mouth
Duodenum
Jujunum

19

What happens in mouth?

Salivary amylase breaks down alpha1-->4 bonds

20

What happens in the duodenum?

Pancreatic amylase acts same as in mouth

21

What happens in the jujunum?

Final digestion by 4 enzymes;

Isomaltase - breaks down alpha1-->6 bonds

Glucoamylase - removes glucose from non reducing ends of carb

Sucrase and Lactase - hydrolyses their sugars

22

What is the end product of carb digestion?

Glucose, Galactose and Fructose

23

How is glucose absorbed after digestion?

It binds to Sodium and enters the cell against its own gradient but along sodiums gradient.

24

How does galactose get absorbed?

Similar to glucose

25

How is fructose absorbed?

Binds to GLUT5 channel protein and moves down its concentration gradient

26

What breaks down cellulose and hemicellulose?

Not us, gut bacteria do releasing CH4 anf H2 gas

27

Example of a disaccharide deficiency?

Lactose intolerance

28

Explain lactose intolerance?

Lactase is deficient

Lactose not digested - osmotically active brings water into gut causing diarrhoea

Lactose broken down by gut bacteria - gas build up and irritant acids

29

Function of hexokinase and glucokinase ?

To phosphorylate glucose to G-6-P

30

Hexokinase and glucokinase are isoenzymes, what does this mean?

They have the same function, yet different structure, Vmax and Km

31

What is glucokinase for?

Has a high Km and a High Vmax, allowing to to grab lots of glucose fast and trap it quickly, only working when there is a high concentration of glucose due to high Km.

Found in hepatocytes

32

What is hexokinase used for?

Used in tissues - has a low Km meaning it can grab glucose more effectivly at low conc.

Has a Low Vmax meaning tissues won't over grab and phosphorylate glucose

33

What is G-6-P used for?

Can be turned back to glucose and used, sent to make pentoses or stored as glycogen

34

How is glycogen synthesised?

Glycogenin covalently bonds glucose to UDP forming chains 8 residues long.

Glycogen synthase then takes over and extends the glucose chains.

Glycogen branching enzyme then breaks the chain and reattaches it as branches via alpha1-->6 bonds.

35

How is glycogen degraded?

1. Glucose monomers are removed one at a time as G-1-P from non reducing ends. Phosphorylated by glycogen phosphorylase.

2. Remaining glycogen moecules is debrached by the transferase activity of a de-branchin enzyme which removes 3 of the last 4 glucose residues on a branch and reattaches it to the nearest non-reducing of main chain via alpha1--> 4 bonds.

3. Last branched glucose is removed by glucosiadase leaving behind an unbranched glycogen chain which glycogen phosphorylase can act upon as needed.

36

What is glycolysis?

A catbolic pathway that forms ATP and pyruvate from glucose anerobically via substrate-level phosphorylation.

Occurs in cytosol so no complex organelles needed.

37

How many phases does glycolysis have?

2 - preparatory and payoff phases each with 5 steps.

38

How many ATP are used and made in glycolysis?

Per glucose;

2 ATP needed for preparatory phase

4 made in payoff phase

39

Why is glycolysis not reversible?

It has overall -ve change in gibbs free energy making it spontaneous. It has 3 very spontanous steps which make this irreversible

40

What happens at the end of the prep phase?

Glucose makes G-3-P

Step 3 of this phase is irreversable and first commited phase.

41

What happens end of payoff phase?

2 G-3-P molecules end up as 2 ATP and 2 NADH

42

Why does NAD+ need to be regenerated?

For use in metabolic pathways to reduce various intermediate metabolites

43

Example of NAD+ regeneration?

During anerboic respiration, Pyruvate changed to lactate using NADH-->NAD+ which can go off and be used as needed.

44

What is the use and regeneration of NAD+ termed as?

Redox balance

45

How is pyruvate converted to lactate?

Via fermentation - is reduced to lactate using lactate dehydrogenase and is driven by oxidation of NADH to NAD+ - redox balance.

46

How is lactase later changed to glucose?

In the liver via gluconeogenisis.

47

What is the cori cycle?

Interaction between the liver and muscles

48

How is pyruvate converted to acetyl CoA?

Aerobic respiration - pyruvate is moved to the mitochondria and enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase turns it to Acetyl-CoA and CO2. This also involves the reduction of NAD+ to NADH

49

What is gluconeogenisis?

Process of making glucose from non carb molecules when body is starving/fasting

50

Since glycolysis is irreversible, how does gluconeogenisis occur?

Uses bypass reactions to get passed the 3 irreversible steps

51

What are bypass reactions A and B?

Occur in mitochondria - Lactate to pyruvtae via lactatse dehydrogenase and NADH to NAD+.

Pyruvate undergoes reaction A - pyruvate to oxaloacetate.

Reaction B - oxaloactetae to PEP.

52

Reaction C?

F-1,6-bisP to F-6-P

53

Reaction D?

Final step in gluconeogenisis

G-6-P to Glucose

54

What is the fate of fructose?

Joins glycolysis using ATP to form F-1-P and then glyceraldehyde and using 1 more ATP forming glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate.

55

Fate of galactose?

Joins glycolysis through conversion of glucose-1-phosphate by UDP.

56

What does the pentose phosphate pathway do?

Produces NADPH and pentose sugars

Also metabolises pentose sugars in diet

57

What are pentose sugars needed for?

Nucleic acid synthsis

58

2 phases of pentose phosphate cycle?

Oxidative irreversible -
G-P-6 to pentose phosphate
AND
Makes NADPH

Non oxidative reversible - Interconverts G-P-6 and pentose phosphate to form lots of 3 to 7 carbon sugars

59

Difference between NAD+ and NADP+?

NAD+ - used in metabolism
NADP+ - used in anabolism

60

What does alcohol inhibit in liver which slows gluconeogenisis?

NAD+ is used to break ethanol down, not enough for gluconeogenisis.