Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

pH - Foundations 08-10-17 > Carbohydrates > Flashcards

Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (44):
1

Aldose

R-O-H

2

Ketose

R-O-R'

3

Triose Monosaccharide

3C
Glyceraldehyde (aldose)
Dihydroxyacetone (ketose)

4

Tetrose Monosaccharide

4C
Erythose (aldose)
No ketose

5

Pentose

5C
D-Ribose (aldose)
D-Ribulose (ketose)

6

Hexose

6C
D-Glucose, Galactose, Mannose (aldose)
D-Fructose (ketose)

7

Heptose

7C
No aldose
Sedoheptulose (ketose)

8

Fiber = what? What is its structure?

Cellulose; linear (beta 1-4 bond)

9

Amylopectin/Amylose Linkage

Alpha 1-4 and 1-6

10

Glycogen Structure

Linear with alpha 1-4 linkages and branch points with alpha 1-6 linkages

11

Starch Structure. Is it water soluble?

Linear with alpha 1-4 linkages and branch points with alpha 1-6 linkages; yes

12

Name 3 polysaccharides

1. Glycogen
2. Starch
3. Cellulose

13

How does cellulose scrape cell walls?

Microfibrils

14

End of name is larger part of molecule example

Proteoglycan vs Glycoprotein

15

Maltose Monosaccharide Component

Glucose + Glucose (alpha linkage 1-4) (iso is alpha 1-6)

16

Lactose Monosaccharide Component

Galactose + Glucose (beta 1-4 linkage)

17

Sucrose Monosaccharide Component

Glucose + Fructose (alpha 1, beta 2 linkage)

18

Trehalase

Alpha 1-1 and produces glucose

19

What does AGE cause?

Inflammation, vasoconstriction, and atherosclerosis

20

Amylase does not work on what? What makes it out?

Disaccharides and cellulose; cellulose

21

What GLUT goes up with insulin?

GLUT 4 (fat and muscle)

22

Fructose Transfer

GLUT 5 (not glucose transporter) into small intestines and testes

23

What transporter is sodium dependent? What does it take? Where?

SGLT1; glucose and galactose (pumped) in small intestine and kidney

24

All carbs are take to blood and BBB by what GLUT?

GLUT 1

25

Neurons GLUT?

GLUT 3

26

Galactosemias to know and their deficient enzyme. Effects?

1. Class Galactosemia; galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase; developmental delays and can't have breast milk

2. Galactokinase Deficiency; galactokinase; cataracts

3. Galactose Epimerase Deficiency; epimerase; can't have lactose and galactose

27

Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI) Enzyme. Autosomal recessive or dominant?

Fructose-1-P Aldolase (aldolase B); recessive

28

Symptoms of HFI?

Hypoglycemia, jaundice, vomiting, hepatic failure and death

29

Treatment of HFI?

Remove sucrose and fructose from diet

30

Treatment for Congential Sucrase-Isomaltase Complex Deficiency? (CSID)

Sucraid (sucrose from yeast)

31

Phosphorylate mannose means what?

Sorting to lysozyme

32

I-Cell Disease

Not phosphorylating mannose, things not getting to lysozyme and instead secreted extracellulary

33

I-Cell Disease Symptom?

Lysosomal enzymes in blood (breaks down lipids, sugars, GAGs)

34

Diseases in Lysozyme

1. I-Cell
2. Gaucher
3. Tay-Sachs

35

Gaucher

Defect in glucocerebroside (GBA) enzyme. Enlarged WBC

36

Tay-Sachs

Acetylhexosaminidase A deficiency (HEXA). Ganglioside accumulation

37

Dynein

Inward = retrograde

38

Kinesin

Outward = anterograde

39

Zellweger Syndrome Location

Peroxisome; PEX1 mutation - no peroxisome assembly and problems with fatty acid oxidation - detect increase in very long chain fatty acids

40

Hutchinson-Gilford Disease (young people look old)

In lamin; gets lipid anchor and envelope shrivels

41

Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (2 forms)

X-linked recessive and autosomal dominant; nuclear laminin. Defects in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle

42

Lamins

Protein that make up nuclear lamina

43

GLUT 2

Liver, kidney, pancreas

44

Symptoms of AGE

Inflammation, increased vasoconstriction, atherosclerosis