Flashcards in Carbohydrates Deck (44):
D-Glucose, Galactose, Mannose (aldose)
Fiber = what? What is its structure?
Cellulose; linear (beta 1-4 bond)
Alpha 1-4 and 1-6
Linear with alpha 1-4 linkages and branch points with alpha 1-6 linkages
Starch Structure. Is it water soluble?
Linear with alpha 1-4 linkages and branch points with alpha 1-6 linkages; yes
Name 3 polysaccharides
How does cellulose scrape cell walls?
End of name is larger part of molecule example
Proteoglycan vs Glycoprotein
Maltose Monosaccharide Component
Glucose + Glucose (alpha linkage 1-4) (iso is alpha 1-6)
Lactose Monosaccharide Component
Galactose + Glucose (beta 1-4 linkage)
Sucrose Monosaccharide Component
Glucose + Fructose (alpha 1, beta 2 linkage)
Alpha 1-1 and produces glucose
What does AGE cause?
Inflammation, vasoconstriction, and atherosclerosis
Amylase does not work on what? What makes it out?
Disaccharides and cellulose; cellulose
What GLUT goes up with insulin?
GLUT 4 (fat and muscle)
GLUT 5 (not glucose transporter) into small intestines and testes
What transporter is sodium dependent? What does it take? Where?
SGLT1; glucose and galactose (pumped) in small intestine and kidney
All carbs are take to blood and BBB by what GLUT?
Galactosemias to know and their deficient enzyme. Effects?
1. Class Galactosemia; galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase; developmental delays and can't have breast milk
2. Galactokinase Deficiency; galactokinase; cataracts
3. Galactose Epimerase Deficiency; epimerase; can't have lactose and galactose
Hereditary Fructose Intolerance (HFI) Enzyme. Autosomal recessive or dominant?
Fructose-1-P Aldolase (aldolase B); recessive
Symptoms of HFI?
Hypoglycemia, jaundice, vomiting, hepatic failure and death
Treatment of HFI?
Remove sucrose and fructose from diet
Treatment for Congential Sucrase-Isomaltase Complex Deficiency? (CSID)
Sucraid (sucrose from yeast)
Phosphorylate mannose means what?
Sorting to lysozyme
Not phosphorylating mannose, things not getting to lysozyme and instead secreted extracellulary
I-Cell Disease Symptom?
Lysosomal enzymes in blood (breaks down lipids, sugars, GAGs)
Diseases in Lysozyme
Defect in glucocerebroside (GBA) enzyme. Enlarged WBC
Acetylhexosaminidase A deficiency (HEXA). Ganglioside accumulation
Inward = retrograde
Outward = anterograde
Zellweger Syndrome Location
Peroxisome; PEX1 mutation - no peroxisome assembly and problems with fatty acid oxidation - detect increase in very long chain fatty acids
Hutchinson-Gilford Disease (young people look old)
In lamin; gets lipid anchor and envelope shrivels
Emery-Dreifuss Muscular Dystrophy (2 forms)
X-linked recessive and autosomal dominant; nuclear laminin. Defects in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle
Protein that make up nuclear lamina
Liver, kidney, pancreas