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Flashcards in Carbon Theory Deck (47):
1

Define
Carbon Fixation

Living organisms putting carbon into organic compounds.

2

Define
Carbon Pathway

Steps to move carbon to a store.

3

Define
Flux

Rate of exchange between reservoirs

4

Define
LNG

Liquified Natural Gas
Cooled liquid methane

5

Define
Mitigation

Stop the root causes

6

Define
Adaptation

People change because of the changes to the environment

7

Explain
Ocean acidification

CO2 in atmospher dissolves in ocean.
Reacts to form carbonic acid.
Increase H+ ions.
Lowering pH.

8

Define
Sequestration

Process of removing carbon from the atomosphere and stored.

9

Thermhaline Circulation

The flow of water caused by change in density.

10

The Geoglogical Carbon Cycle

Natural long term cycle.
Closed system.
Goes between Land, ocean and atmosphere.
Co2 = Warmer = Evaporation increase = Acid rain = weathering = carbonates on seabed = sedimentation

11

The Bio-geochemical Cycle

Living organisms control it
Photosynthesis
Respiration
Decomposition
Combustion

12

3 forms of carbon

Inorganic (rocks)
Organic (plant matherial)
Gaseous (CO2, CH4, CO)

13

Residence Time

Time carbon stays in reservoir

= amount in reservoir / inflows

14

Human activities that affect reservoir turnover times (3)

Extraction/combustion
Deforestation
Mass consumerism (farm)

15

Explain human impact on carbon cycle

Extract/burn more fossil fuels.
Increase gaseous carbon.
Takes time to replenish store.
CO2 is building up in ocean and atmosphere.
Biota will grow to combat but be unsuccessful.
Won’t reach equilibrium.

16

Biological Carbon Pump

carbon goes atmosphere to organic matter.

e.g. phytoplankton

17

Marnie Carbonate Pump

Organic matter to inorganic matter

18

Physical Pump

carbon transported in ocean by thermohaline current

19

Factors affecting Energy Mix (5)

Environmental Priorities
Political Considerations
Technology
Costs
Physical availability

20

Define
Energy Security

Ensure access to reliable and affordable energy to meet current and future demand.

21

Energy Players

Consumers
National governments
TNCs
OPEC

22

Consumers
Energy Players

Public protests could result in countries chasing energy mixes.
They have choice.
Choose cheaper option so companies will have to adjust to be competitive.

23

National government
Energy Player

Diversify energy
Increase energy efficiency
Invest in renewables
Meet climate change goals

24

Energy TNCs
Energy Players

State controlled TNCs allow countries to gain max revenue.
Slow change to green energy.
Conflict between them and enviro groups.

25

OPEC
Energy Players

Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
14 countries
Decide on pricing and outputs of oil in the market

26

Who are the main fossil fuel producers (4)

USA
Russia
Saudi Arabia
China

27

Who are the biggest fossil fuel consumers (3)

Japan
South Korea
Europe

28

Alternative energy sources

Recyclables (nuclear biofuels)

Renewables (solar tidal)

Radical (hydrogen fuel cells)

29

Nuclear Power

-No carbon emissions
-Reliable
-77% of France energy

-Waste Disposal
-Expensive to decommission
-Meltdowns

30

Biofuel

-Cheap
-Easy to source

-Damage environment
-Burning producing CO2
-Deforestation of indigenous land

31

Tidal

-No biproducts
-Flood protection

-Expensive
-Need suitable sites
-Ecosystem danger

32

Wind

-Clean energy
-Both small and large scale

-Noise pollution
-Offshore are very expensive

33

Hydroelectric Power

-Flood control
-Increase water availability
-1/5 of worlds energy

-Relocate people
-Block nutrient flow

34

Solar

-limited maintenance
-No greenhouse gas emission

-Not as effective in cloudy countries

35

Hydrogen Fuel Cells

-Only waste is water

- No government investment
-Flammable when compressed
-developed countries only

36

Define
Critical Threshold

Point when a change/disturbance in external conditions causes a rapid change in an ecosystem.

37

Threats of humans

Deforestation
Over consumption
Monocultures

38

Ocean acidification
Coral Reefs

Calcium carbonate is used to build coral exoskeleton.
But will more H+ is is used up.
Coral skeletons are dissolving.
Shell formation decreased by 42%.

39

Climate Change impact on ecosystems

Provisioning services (drinking water, scuba diving, food)

Regulating services (cyrosphere store, natural forest)

Cultural services ( biodiversity)

40

What impacts human wellbeing?

War
Inequality
Access to resources

41

Increased Temperature and evaporation

Extreme warms and cold.
High temp = more evaporation and precipitation at ITCZ and polar regions.
Arctic water cycle:

42

Forest Loss
Issues

Satellite shows 2.3million km2 loss.
Trees provide food and fuel.
Indigenous people rely on forest for life.
Help deliver clean water.

43

Ecosystem services
(3)

Provisioning (goods)
Regulating (water/climate)
Cultural (leisure/education)

44

Examples
Provisioning Services

Timber
Palm Oil
Medicine
Food

45

Examples
Regulating services

Climate
Water cycle
Water Purification

46

Examples
Cultural services

Spiritual Value
Leisure
Education
Aesthetic

47

Relationship between environment and economic development

Increase economy increase degregation.
Reach peak and then become aware of environmental needs.
Degreagation reduces.