Flashcards in Cardiac Anatomy Deck (35):
What is the Sinus venosus?
Connects SVC and IVC which are embryologically distinct.
How can the RA be divided? Which part drains into RV?
RAA, main body (muscular) and isthmus (drains into RV)
Where is the SA node located?
Beneath the epicardium of the RA - lies at the junction bt sinus venosus and muscular part of RA
The LV can be divided into three zones. What are they?
Apical zone, middle zone, basal zone
Which shoulder does the pulmonary artery point to? Ascending aorta?
PA - left shoulder
Ao - right shoulder
What is the PA and Ao angle?
60-90 degrees (King Tut)
Which pulmonary artery and which mainstem bronchus travel under the aortic arch?
Left mainstem bronchus and right pulmonary artery
Describe the branches of coronary circulation.
ascending Ao --> RCA & LMA
RCA --> PDA & RCA-PL
LMA --> LAD & LCX
LAD --> LAD-Ds
LCX --> OMs
Which coronary arteries wrap around the interventricular groove?
RCA and LCX
Which coronary artery perfuses the entire apex?** EXAM
Why are most aneurysms of the heart at the apex and are ischemic in nature?
only blood supply to apex is LAD
What is coronary dominance?
Which coronary artery gives rise to the PDA - RCA (70%), LCX (20%), Co (10%)
Where is the AV node?
What is the function of the foramen ovale in fetal circ?
placenta --> RA --> FO --> LA (bypass lungs)
What are the components of the fossa ovalis?
limbus (edge) + valve
Where is the MV in relation to the TV?
MV inserts through AVS higher than TV
What is the incidence of PFO?
20-35% (incidence inc with dec age)
What is the Lingula?
left-sided version of the right middle lobe (not divided by fissures), part of upper lobe
What are the differences between the RA Free Wall and the LA Free Wall?
RA: cristae terminalis, sinus venosus (IVC & SVC), pectinate muscles, RAA
LA: no cristae terminalis, no pectinate muscles, three pulmonary veins coming in, body is smooth - LAA is only part with little crests; more fibrous tissue in endocardium than in RA
Where do clots form in AF?
What are the three leaflets of the tricuspid valve?
Ant, Post, Septal
When is the term cusp vs leaflet used
cusp: pulmonic & aortic valve
leaflets: tricuspid & mitral valve
How do leaflets connect to septum in RV?
septal leaflet has direct connection to membranous septum via its cords - different from left side
What are the two leaflets of the mitral valve?
Ant & Post
What is a commissure? What are their function?
Junction of each leaflet to its neighbour.Contract during systole, pull down on cords, pull down on leaflets, zippers valve shut. If papillary muscles were connected to main body of leaflets, they would contract and pull leaflet open.
What is the annulus
where valve inserts into ventricle
What are the features of the RV?
-Apical trabecular zone
-Outflow tract entirely muscular - discontinuity btw TV and PV (complete muscular ring separating)
-Membranous septum (part of AV septum)
Where does bundle of His bifurcate?
What are the features of the LV?
-trabeculations are finer
-mitral valve is in direct fibrous continuity with AV
-membranous septum between right and posterior aortic cusps
What is the difference in orientation of the heart between a CT/MRI and an Echo?
CT/MRI: looking toward heart
Echo: looking toward feet
What are acute and obtuse margins of the heart?
acute margin: RV
obtuse margin: LV
The LAD, RCA and LCX perfuse what proportions of the LV? (Right Dominance)
LAD: 50% (apex, anterior & anteroseptal 2/3)
RCA: 35%(most post and inf LV along with almost all RA)
LCX: 15% (lateral aspect)
The anterolateral papillary muscle of the LV is supplied by which two coronary arteries? What about the posteromedial papillary muscle?
LAD and LCX (AL)
What are differences between AV/PV and MV/TV?
no papillary muscles or cords
cusp + annulus