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Flashcards in Cardiac Anatomy Deck (35):
1

What is the Sinus venosus?

Connects SVC and IVC which are embryologically distinct.

2

How can the RA be divided? Which part drains into RV?

RAA, main body (muscular) and isthmus (drains into RV)

3

Where is the SA node located?

Beneath the epicardium of the RA - lies at the junction bt sinus venosus and muscular part of RA

4

The LV can be divided into three zones. What are they?

Apical zone, middle zone, basal zone

5

Which shoulder does the pulmonary artery point to? Ascending aorta?

PA - left shoulder
Ao - right shoulder

6

What is the PA and Ao angle?

60-90 degrees (King Tut)

7

Which pulmonary artery and which mainstem bronchus travel under the aortic arch?

Left mainstem bronchus and right pulmonary artery

8

Describe the branches of coronary circulation.

ascending Ao --> RCA & LMA
RCA --> PDA & RCA-PL
LMA --> LAD & LCX
LAD --> LAD-Ds
LCX --> OMs

9

Which coronary arteries wrap around the interventricular groove?

RCA and LCX

10

Which coronary artery perfuses the entire apex?** EXAM

LAD

11

Why are most aneurysms of the heart at the apex and are ischemic in nature?

only blood supply to apex is LAD

12

What is coronary dominance?

Which coronary artery gives rise to the PDA - RCA (70%), LCX (20%), Co (10%)

13

Where is the AV node?

AV septum
subendocardial
RA

14

What is the function of the foramen ovale in fetal circ?

placenta --> RA --> FO --> LA (bypass lungs)

15

What are the components of the fossa ovalis?

limbus (edge) + valve

16

Where is the MV in relation to the TV?

MV inserts through AVS higher than TV

17

What is the incidence of PFO?

20-35% (incidence inc with dec age)

18

What is the Lingula?

left-sided version of the right middle lobe (not divided by fissures), part of upper lobe

19

What are the differences between the RA Free Wall and the LA Free Wall?

RA: cristae terminalis, sinus venosus (IVC & SVC), pectinate muscles, RAA
LA: no cristae terminalis, no pectinate muscles, three pulmonary veins coming in, body is smooth - LAA is only part with little crests; more fibrous tissue in endocardium than in RA

20

Where do clots form in AF?

RAA

21

What are the three leaflets of the tricuspid valve?

Ant, Post, Septal

22

When is the term cusp vs leaflet used

cusp: pulmonic & aortic valve
leaflets: tricuspid & mitral valve

23

How do leaflets connect to septum in RV?

septal leaflet has direct connection to membranous septum via its cords - different from left side

24

What are the two leaflets of the mitral valve?

Ant & Post

25

What is a commissure? What are their function?

Junction of each leaflet to its neighbour.Contract during systole, pull down on cords, pull down on leaflets, zippers valve shut. If papillary muscles were connected to main body of leaflets, they would contract and pull leaflet open.

26

What is the annulus

where valve inserts into ventricle

27

What are the features of the RV?

-Apical trabecular zone
-Outflow tract entirely muscular - discontinuity btw TV and PV (complete muscular ring separating)
-Membranous septum (part of AV septum)

28

Where does bundle of His bifurcate?

membranous septum

29

What are the features of the LV?

-trabeculations are finer
-mitral valve is in direct fibrous continuity with AV
-membranous septum between right and posterior aortic cusps

30

What is the difference in orientation of the heart between a CT/MRI and an Echo?

CT/MRI: looking toward heart
Echo: looking toward feet

31

What are acute and obtuse margins of the heart?

acute margin: RV
obtuse margin: LV

32

The LAD, RCA and LCX perfuse what proportions of the LV? (Right Dominance)

LAD: 50% (apex, anterior & anteroseptal 2/3)
RCA: 35%(most post and inf LV along with almost all RA)
LCX: 15% (lateral aspect)

33

The anterolateral papillary muscle of the LV is supplied by which two coronary arteries? What about the posteromedial papillary muscle?

LAD and LCX (AL)
RCA (PM)

34

What are differences between AV/PV and MV/TV?

no papillary muscles or cords
cusp + annulus

35

Describe the layers of the pericardium.

The pericardium consists of the fibrous pericardium and the serous pericardium. The serous pericardium consists of two parts (a parietal layer that lines the inner surface of the fibrous pericardium and a visceral layer(epicardium) that adheres to the heart and forms its outer covering).