Cardiac Drug Classes- Purposes and Actions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac Drug Classes- Purposes and Actions Deck (18):
1

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors

Antihypertensive;

Purpose: treatment of hypertension

Actions: prevent ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) from converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II, leading to a decrease in BP, a decrease in aldosterone production and a small increase in serum potassium levels, along with sodium and fluid loss

2

Angiotensin II-receptor blockers (ARBs)

Antihypertensive

Purpose: treatment of hypertension

Actions: ARBs bind with the angiotensin II receptors in vascular smooth muscle and in the adrenal cortex to block vasoconstriction and the release of aldosterone; block the blood pressure-raising effect of the renin-angiotensin system and lower BP

3

Calcium channel blockers (CCB)

Antihypertensive and antianginal

Purpose: treating hypertension and angina

Actions: inhibit the movement of calcium ions across the membranes of myocardial and arterial muscle cells, altering the action potential and blocking muscle cell contraction

4

Vasodilators

Antihypertensive

Purpose: severe hypertension or hypertensive emergencies

Actions: act directly on vascular smooth muscle to cause muscle relaxation, leading to vasodilation, and drop in BP

5

Cardiac Glycosides

Cardiotonic

Purpose: treat acute heart failure, atrial arrhythmias

Action: increase intracellular Ca+ and allows more calcium to enter myocardial cells during depolarization... Results in 1) increased force of myocardial contraction, 2) increased cardiac output and renal perfusion, 3) slowed HR, 4) decreased conduction velocity through the AV node

6

Class I Antiarrhythmics

Arrhythmic agents

Purpose: treatment of life-threatening ventricular or atrial arrythmias

Actions: stabilize the cell membrane by blocking Na+ channels in the cell membrane during an action potential

7

Class II Antiarrhythics

Arrhythmics

Purpose: management of premature ventricular contractions; supraventricular tachycardia

Actions: competitively block beta receptor sites in the heart and kidneys causing decrease in HR, cardiac excitability, and cardiac output

8

Class III Antiarrhythmics

Purpose: treatment of ventricular arrhythmias

Actions: blocks K+ channels and slow the outward movement of K= during phase 3, prolonging it; acts directly on the heart muscle cells; prolong repolarization

9

Class IV Antiarrhythmics

Antiarrhythmic agents

Purpose: treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, and atrial flutter

Actions: blocks the movement of Ca+ ions across the cell membrane, depressing the generation of acction potentials, delaying phases 1 and 2 of repolarization, and slowing conduction through the AV node

10

Nitrates

Antianginal Agents

Purpose: treatment of angina

Actions: act directly on smooth muscle to cause relaxation and to depress muscle tone; relax and dilate veins, arteries, and capillaries allowing increased blood flow

11

Beta blockers

antiangina

Purpose: treat angina; block the stimulatory effects of the SNS

Actions: competitively block beta-adrenergic receptors in the heart and juxtaglomerular apparatus, decreasing the influence of the SNS on these tissues... causes decrease in excitability, cardiac output, cardiac oxygen consumption, and BP

12

HMC-CoA Reductase Inhibitors

Lipid-lowering agent

Purpose: reduction of cholesterol

Actions: block HMC-CoA reductase from completing the synthesis of cholesterol

13

Niacin (Vitamin B3)

Lipid lowering agent

Purpose: lower cholesterol

Actions: inhibits the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissues, increases the rate of triglyceride removal from plasma, and generally reduces LDL and triglyceride levels

14

Anticoagulants

Drugs affecting clot formation

Purpose: decrease clot formation

Actions: interfere with the clotting cascade and thrombin formation

15

Erythropoiesis- Stimulating Agents

Antianemics

Purpose: treatment of anemia

Actions: acts like the natural glycoprotein erythropoietin to stimulate the production of RBCs in the bone marrow

16

Agents used for Iron Deficiency Anemia

Antianemics

Purpose: treatment of anemia

Actions: iron preparations elevate the serum iron concentration

17

Agents for Metabolic Anemias

Antianemics

Purpose: treatment of anemia

Actions: folic acid and vitamin B12 are given as replacement therapy

18

Agents for Sickle Cell Anemia

Antianemics

Purpose: treatment of anemia

Actions: increases the amount of fetal hemoglobin produced in the bone marrow and dilutes the formation of the abnormal hemoglobin S in adults; results in less clogging of small vessels