Cardiac III: Cardiac Diseases & 12-Lead EKG Part 1.5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac III: Cardiac Diseases & 12-Lead EKG Part 1.5 Deck (88):
1

What condition is this? BP > 140/90 on at least 2 occasions measured at least 1-2 weeks apart

systemic hypertension

2

The following conditions can develop as a result of ____ ______.

ischemic heart disease

congestive heart failure

cerebral vascular accident

arterial aneurysm

end stage renal disease

systemic hypertension

3

Optimal BP is: ____/_____ Normal BP is less than ____/____

120/80

130/85

4

High-normal BP ranges from: Systolic: ___ - _____ Diastolic: ____ - _____

130-139

85-89

5

Stage 1 Hypertension ranges from: Systolic: ____-____ Diastolic: _____-____

140 - 159

90 -99

6

Stage 2 Hypertension ranges from: Systolic: ____-____ Diastolic: _____-____

160 - 179

100 - 109

7

Stage 3 Hypertension BP is ___ / ___

180

110

8

What accounts for 95% of all cases of HTN?

essential HTN

9

The cause of ____ HTN cannot be identified.

essential

10

Familial incidence and patholphysiological factors such as: increased sympathetic NS activity overproduction of Na retaining hormones & vasoconstrictors high Na intake increased renin secretion deficiencies of vasodilators describe ______ hypertension.

essential

11

Known etilogy is present in _____ HTN.

secondary

12

What is the most common secondary type of HTN?

Renovascular HTN from renal artery stenosis

13

When renovascular HTN is present, diastolic BP is usually > ____ mmHg and an ____ ____ ___ is present.

125

upper abdominal bruit

14

What test confirms secondary HTN?

MRI

15

What is the treatment of essential HTN?

lifestyle modification: weight reduction, increase in physical activity, moderation in alcohol, quit smoking pharmacologic therapy: diuretics, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers calcium channel blockers

16

Secondary HTN is treated by: (2)

treatment is often surgical (angioplasty, surgery for stenotic renal artery, adrenalectomy)

pharmacologic therapy reserved for patients in those where surgery is not possible

17

Hypertensive crisis when acute diastolic BP > _____mmHg.

130

18

Need for emergent treatment determined by absolute BP rather than rate of increase. True or false?

False, determined by rate of increase rather than absolute BP

19

Patients with evidence of acute or ongoing target organ damage (encephalopathy, CHF, renal insufficiency, subarachnoid hemmorage) require prompt treatment with ____ BP lowering agents.

IV

20

Don't decrease BP to normotensive levels! Desired decrease is MAP < ___% in first 2 hours, then additional decreases over next ___-___ hours.

20 24-48

21

Meds to consider delivering during hypertensive crisis: (3)

Nitroprusside Hydralazine Nitroglycerine

22

Anesthetic considerations for HTN during preop evaluation: (3)

determine adequacy of BP control review drugs being administered for BP control evaluate evidence of end-organ damage

23

For HTN patients: induction of anesthesia considerations: (2)

anticipate exaggerated BP changes limit duration of DL

24

For HTN patients: maintenance of anesthesia considerations: (2)

administer a volatile anesthetic to blunt HTN responses monitor for MI

25

For HTN patients: post-op management considerations (2)

anticipate periods of HTN maintain monitoring of end-organ function

26

Condition occurs when the heart is unable to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to perfuse tissues and organs of the body.

Congestive heart failure

27

What are the causes of CHF? (4)

valve abnormalities

impaired contractility secondary to ischemic heart disease or cardiomyopathy systemic

HTN

pulmonary HTN (cor pulmonale)

28

What is the most common form of heart failure? Fluid may back up in the lungs causing SOB.

left-sided heart failure

29

What most commonly results from left-sided heart-failure?

right-sided heart failure

30

Fluid may back up into the abdomen (ascites) and legs and feet (edema) in this type of heart failure.

right-sided heart failure

31

In this type of heart failure, the left ventricle cannot contract vigorously, indicating a pumping problem. EF < ___% in this case.

systolic

45

32

In this type of heart failure, the left ventricle cannot relax or fill fully, indicating a filling problem from noncompliant ventricles.

diastolic heart failure

33

In diastolic heart failure, EF is often normal. True or false?

true

34

NY Heart Association classification system: No limitation and no symptoms with ordinary physical activity is Class ___.

1

35

NY Heart Association classification system: Slight limitation and symptoms with ordinary physical activity. Comfortable at rest. Class __.

2

36

NY Heart Association classification system: More pronounced limitation because of symptoms, even with less than ordinary physical activity. Comfortable only at rest. Class __

3

37

NY Heart Association classification system: Severe to complete limitation of physical activity. Symptoms are present with any degree of physical activity and also appear at rest. Class ___

4

38

Symptoms of ____ include fatigue at rest or with minimal exertion.

CHF

39

Hallmark symptoms include dyspnea, tachypnea, orthopnea, PND, and S3. Signs include moist rales in the lungs --> pulmonary edema.

LEFT CHF

40

Hallmark symptoms include systemic venous congestion as evidence by JVD, oranomegaly (liver and spleen), RUQ tenderness and elevation of liver tests, and pulmonary edema.

RIGHT CHF

41

In CXR, distension of the pulmonary veins in upper lobes of the lungs (pulmonary venous HTN), hilar and perihilar haze (perivascular edema, pleural effusions and pericardial effusion indicate ____.

CHF

42

Short-term treatment of CHF goals include: (3)

relieve symptoms of circulatory congestion increase tissue perfusion improve quality of life

43

Long-term treatment goals for CHF: (1)

slow or reverse progressive LV dysfunction (ventricular remodeling) that results in a dilated ventricular chamber and low EF

44

Non-pharmacologic management of CHF: (6)

Na restriction

exercise

angioplasty and bypass surgery

valve repairs

transplant

ventricular assist device

45

List 4 drugs that are good options for CHF patients.

ketamine

opioids

benzodiazepines

etomidate

Caution: nitrous oxide & opioids/benzos = cardiac depression!

46

Volatile anesthetics are encouraged for CHF patients. True or false?

false

47

Use caution when using propofol for CHF patients. True or false?

true It is not a direct myocardial depressant, but causes peripheral vasodilation which decreases BP.

48

For severe CHF patients, consider opioids only, positive pressure ventilation, invasive monitoring, and support of CO with dopamine and dobutamine also. True or false?

true

49

What condition is characterized by myocardial dysfunction unrelated to the usual causes of heart disease (CAD, valve disease, or HTN)

cardiomyopathy

50

Common to all cardiomyopathy is progressive, life threatening CHF. True or false?

true

51

Right ventricular enlargement that develops secondary to pulmonary HTN indicates ____ ____.

Cor Pulmonale

52

COPD with associated loss of pulmonary capillaries and arterial hypoxemia --> pulmonary vascular vasoconstriction --> hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle and increases pulmonary vascular resistance--> ______ _____.

cor pulmonale

53

____ ____ is obscured by COPD and results in:

dyspnea

effort -related syncope

elevated pulmonary artery pressures

cor pulmonale

54

CXR reveals: right ventricular hypertrophy reflected by decreases in retrosternal space on lateral view, or, prominence of PA and decreased vascular markings are suggestive of pulmonary HTN in this type of heart condition.

cor pulmonale

55

Peaked p waves in II, III, AVF and right ventricular hypertrophy (right axis deviation and RBBB) show signs of ___ ____.

cor pulmonale

56

To treat cor pulmonale, decrease the workload of the right ventricle by decreasing PVR. True or false?

true

57

Treatments for cor pulmonale include: (7)

supplemental O2

anticoalgulation

diuretics

digitalis for CHF

vasodilators

antibiotics

heart-lung transplant

58

Characterized by a sustained increase of pulmonary artery pressure without a demonstrable cause.

Primary pulmonary HTN

59

In primary pulmonary HTN, mean PA pressure > ___ mmHg (rest) > ___ mmHg (exertion)

25

30

60

Primary pulmonary HTN pathological changes include: (3)

in situ thrombosis

smooth muscle hypertrophy

intimal proliferation

61

Early symptoms of primary pulmonary HTN include: (2)

dyspnea

fatigability

62

____ ____ ____ to confirm diagnosis of primary pulmonary HTN.

Right heart catheterization

63

There is no cure for primary pulmonary HTN. True or false?

true

64

Treat primary pulmonary HTN with: (2)

Ca channel blockers (nifedipine & diltiazem) or, IV prostacyclin as a bridge to transplantation for non-responders

65

Inflammation of the pericardium usually caused by a viral infection is known as:

acute pericarditis

66

What do these symptoms indicate?

chest pain worsening with inspiration

friction rub

diffuse ST segment elevation

acute pericarditis

67

Treatment for acute pericarditis: (2)

oral analgesics for pain

NSAIDs

68

What is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity?

pericardial effusion

69

A pericardial effusion with enough pressure to adversely affect heart function is known as what?

cardiac tamponade

70

Signs of impending tamponade include: (3)

dyspnea low BP distant heart sounds

71

CXR reveals a "water bottle heart" indicates what?

cardiac tamponade

72

What is the treatment for cardiac tamponade?

pericardiocentesis needle is inserted through the chest wall into the pericardial space to withdraw excess fluid

73

_____ ____ is a long-term inflammation of the pericardium with thickening, scarring, and muscle tightening. Causes include heart surgery, radiation therapy to the chest and TB

Constrictive pericarditis

74

Symptoms of constrictive pericarditis include: (5)

dyspnea fatigue peripheral edema ascites weakness

75

What tests indicate constrictive pericarditis? (4)

chest CT (demonstrate thickening) TEE doppler flow studies cardiac cath

76

Treatment for constrictive pericarditis include: (2)

either resolves surgical stripping of pericardium

77

Symptoms of MI: (4)

  • Anxiety, sinus tachycardia, hypotension (caused by left or right ventricular dysfunction or cardiac dysrhythmias)
  • Moist rales representing CHF (due to LV dysfunction)
  • Cardiac murmur may reflect ischemic mitral regurgitation.
  • Rule out other causes of CP: pulmonary embolism, aortic dissection, spontaneous pneumothorax, pericarditis, cholecystitis

78

Treatment of MI (6)

Aspirin
IV Morphine: pain relief and decrease the stimulus to catecholamine release and increases in myocardial oxygen requirements.
Thrombolytic Therapy: Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA, streptokinase) within 30-60 min of hospital arrival.
Coronary Angioplasty: within 1-2 hours
CABG: reperfusion achieved more quickly with Thrombolytics or PTCA, emergent CABG reserved for patients who’s anatomy precludes PTCA, failed angioplasty, infarct related ventricular septal defect or MR

  • Adjunctive Medical Therapy: Heparin IV, Beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, nitrate therapy

79

A systolic murmur indicates what type of valve issues? (4)

AP valves open; so murmurs heard are AP stenosis or MT insufficiency

  • Aortic stenosis
  • Pulmonary stenosis
  • Mitral regurgitation
  • Tricuspid regurgitation

80

A diastolic murmur indicates what type of valve issues? (4)

 MT valves open; so murmurs heard are MT stenosis or AP insufficiency (MS, TS, AR, PR)

81

What cardiac dysrhythmia is most common with rheumatic mitral valve disease & left atrial enlargement?

atrial fibrillation

82

Angina Pectoris can occur (even without ischemic heart disease) from increased myocardial O2 demand from enlarged cardiac muscle mass (hypertrophy).  True or false?

true

83

What are the symptoms of mitral stenosis? 

dyspnea on exertion

orthopnea

PND from LV dysfunction (if AR and MR also present --> significant LV dysfunction)

84

What valve condition is characterized by an "opening snap"?

Mitral stenosis

85

What type of cardiomyopathy is indicated by:

biventricular dilation
increased ventricular volume
decreased ejection fraction
increased ventricular filling pressure
decreased stroke volume

dilated cardiomyopathy

86

What cardiomyopathy is characterized by:

decreased ventricular compliance
increased ventricular filling pressure

restrictive cardiomyopathy

87

What cardiomyopathy is characterized by:

marked increase EF
marked decrease of ventricular compliance
increased LV and septum size

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

88

What cardiomyopathy is characterized by:

thickened endocardium
decreased ventricular compliance
 

obliterative cardiomyopathy