Cardiac, Pulmonary, Hyperlipidemic, Histamine, Serotonin, and Eicosanoid Drugs Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Cardiac, Pulmonary, Hyperlipidemic, Histamine, Serotonin, and Eicosanoid Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiac, Pulmonary, Hyperlipidemic, Histamine, Serotonin, and Eicosanoid Drugs Deck (33):
1

What is the blood pressure goal in hypertensive patients with:

No comorbidities? < 140/90
Diabetes mellitus? < 130/80
Chronic kidney disease? < 130/80

2

What drugs are used to control blood pressure in pheochromocytoma?

Phenoxybenzamine, Phentolamine or Labetalol

3

What medications may cause drug-induced lupus?

It's HIPP to have LUPUS!
Hydralazine
Isoniazid
Procainamide
Penicillamine

4

How does minoxidil cause excessive hair growth?

Minoxidil stimulates hair follicles (telogen phase) to differentiate into growth follicles (anagen phase)

5

Why are patients with diabetic nephropathy treated with ACE-inhibitors?

ACE inhibitors decrease albumin excretion and slow progression from micro-to macroalbuminuria (renoprotective effect)

6

Why do patients taking angiotensin antagonists (ACE-Is/ARBs) develop hyperkalemia?

ACE-Is/ARBs reduce aldosterone levels and cause potassium retention

7

Which portion of the electron transport chain is affected by cyanide?

Complex IV (cytochrome oxidase) of the Electron Transport Chain

8

What is the antidote for cyanide poisoning?

inhaled amyl nitrite + IV sodium nitrite + IV sodium thiosulfate

9

Why do patients taking nitrates usually experience throbbing headaches?

due to meningeal artery vasodilation

10

Why is calcium -dependent neurotransmission or hormone release not affected by CCBs?

-CCBs block L-type calcium channels
-other functions use N-, P-, and R-types

11

What drugs can cause gingival hyperplasia?

NapaCa-Pangit ng gingiVa mo!
Nifedipine
Cyclosporine
Phenytoin
Verapamil

12

Which type of heart failure presents with:
Orthopnea, PND, Pulmonary Congestion?
Hepatomegaly , Edema, Engorged Neck Veins?

Left-sided
Right-sided

13

What drugs have narrow therapeutic index?

WALA na Cyang PaPa! VasTeD na!
Warfarin
Aminoglycosides
Lithium
Amphotericin B
Carbamazepine
Phenobarbital
Phenytoin
Vancomycin
Theophylline
Digoxin

14

What drugs have shown to improve survival in case of heart failure?

ABA! Buhay ka pa!
ACE inhibitors
Beta-blockers
Aldosterone Antagonists

15

What are the effects of class I antiarrhythmics on action potential duration?

Class IA: prolongs AP duration
Class IB: shortens AP duration
Class IC: no effects on AP duration

16

Class IA

I Am the Queen Who Proclaimed Diso's pyramid
Quinidine, Procainamide, Disopyramide

17

Class IB

I Buy Mexican Taco's from Lily
IB: Mexiletine, Tocainide, Lidocaine
IB Is Best post MI

18

What are the drugs that can cause agranulocytosis?

Agranulocytosis! CCCAPPIT!
Clozapine
Co-trimoxazole
Colchicine
Aminopyrine
Phenylbutazone
PTU
Indomethacin
Tocainide

19

Class IC

Chicken ay Pagkain For Enrico
IC: Propafenone, Flecainide, Encainide
IC Is Contraindicated post MI

20

What are the major subgroups of beta-blockers?

Nonselective --> PROPRANOL, TIMOLOL
Beta1-selective --> ACEBUTOLOL, BETAXOLOL, ESMOLOL, ATENOLOL, METROPOLOL
Partial agonist --> PINDOLOL, ACEBUTOLOL
Lacking local anesthetic effect --> TIMOLOL
Low lipid solubility --> ATENOLOL
Shortest-acting --> ESMOLOL
Longest-acting --> NADOLOL
Combined a and b blockade --> CARVEDILOL, LABETALOL

21

AMIODARONE TOXICITY

Pulmonary
Paresthesias
Tremors
Thyroid dysfunction
Corneal deposits
Skin deposits

22

Class 3 Antiarrhythmics

AIDS
Amiodarone, Ibutilide, Dofetilide, Sotalol

23

Why are dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers not useful as antiarrhythmics?

dihydropyridine CCBs evoke compensatory sympathetic discharge which facilitates arrhythmias rather than terminating them

24

Mnemonics-Metabolic Acidosis

ACIDazolamide causes ACIDosis

25

What are the adverse effects associated with loop diuretics?

OH DANG!
Ototoxicity
Hypokalemia
Dehydration
Allergy to sulfa
Nephritis
Gout

26

Mnemonics- Thiazide diurectics

Hyper GLUC
HyperGlycemia
HyperLipidemia
HyperUricemia
HyperCalcemia

27

Mnemonic-Potassium-Sparing Diuretics

The KL STAEs (stays) with K sparing diuretics!
Spironolactone
Triamterene
Amiloride
Eplerenone

28

Which drugs can cause gynecomastia?

GYNECOMASTIA
Some Drugs Create Awesome Knockers
Spironolactone
Digoxin
Cimetidine
Alcohol
Ketoconazole

29

Why are statins used in the management of coronary artery diseases?

for stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques

30

For which biochemical pathway are the following rate-limiting enzymes:
HMG-CoA Synthase?
HMG-CoA Reductase

Ketone body synthesis (ketogenesis)
Cholesterol biosynthesis

31

What are the drugs that cause flushing?

V-A-N-C
Vancomycin
Adenosine
Niacin
Calcium channel blockers

32

Mnemonics-Fibrates

FULL: Fibrates Upregulate Lipoprotein Lipase

33

Mnemonics-Alprostadil

Prostglandin E1 (Alprostadil)
E1 (iwan) mong bukas ang ductus
maintains patency of PDA