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Flashcards in Cardiac Tamponade Deck (16):
0

Pericardial effusion versus cardiac Tampanode?

Fluid in the pericardial space versus fluid in the pericardial space that compresses the heart and impedes diastolic filling

1

How much fluid can the pericardium hold before resulting in tamponade?

200 mL if rapid vs up to 2000 mL if slowly accumulated

2

Beck Triad?

Signs of rapid cardiac tamponade
1. Hypotension
2. elevated jugular venous pressure, 3. small quiet heart

3

Clinical picture of slow cardiac tamponade?

1. Dyspnea
2. Elevated jugular pressure
3. Peripheral edema
4. Cardiomegaly on x-ray
5. Pulsus paradoxus

4

Pulsus paradoxes?

Dropp in systolic blood pressure during inspiration by 10+ mm Hg

5

Pulsus paradoxes seen in these pathologies?

1. Cardiac tamponade
2. Disturbed intrathoracic pressures during respiration (COPD)

6

Causes of constrictive pericarditis?

1. TB/Viral infections
2. Radiation therapy
3. Cardiac surgery
4. Uremia
5. Malignancy

7

Difference between cardiac tamponade and constrictive pericarditis?

No pulses paradoxes in constructive pericarditis

8

Kussmaul sign?

Increase in JVP during inspiration seen in constrictive pericarditis (Normally blood would be sucked into the heart, but because of diastolic restriction, blood fills jugular vein)

9

Pericardial knock?

High-pitched early diastolic sound occurring just after aortic valve closure. Seen in pericarditis

10

Restrictive cardiomyopathies with elongated PR interval?

Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis

11

Endomyocardial fibrosis?

Fibrosis of the endocardium along with fever and eosinophilia (25% of deaths to heart dz in Africa)

12

Imaging that could potentially differentiate between constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy?

MRI, but more likely need biopsy

13

ECG shows ST segment elevation with low voltage diffusely?

Acute pericarditis

14

Treatment of cardiac Tamponade?

Pericardiocentesis or surgical pericardial window

15

While awaiting pericardiocentesis, immediate support for patients with cardiac tamponade?

IV fluids because patients are preload dependent

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