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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (145)
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1

LAD supplies

anterior LV wall
atnerior septum
His purkinje

2

Left circumflex supplies

lateral LV wall

3

RCA (PDA) supplies

inferior LV wall
RV
posterior septum
AV, SA node

4

What typically increases isotropy?

catecholamines

5

during cardiac contraction, only ___ stays the same

A (H,I,Z all differ!)

6

4 things that decrease contractility and SV

B blockade
heart failure
acidosis
hypoxia/hypercapnia

7

4 things that increase contractility and SV

catecholamines
increase in intracellular Ca
decrease in extracellular Na
digitalis-->increases intracel Na and therefore increases intracellular Ca

8

LV diastolic function determinants (5)

Lusitrophy
LA pressure (aka LV filling pressure)
LV compliance
Heart rate (diastolic filling time) (dec in HR= increase in diastolic fx)
atrial kick

9

S3 represents

early diastole- dilated LV

10

S4 represents

late diastole-atrial kick to stiffened LV

11

paradoxical split

normally A2, P2 (because pressure greater in aorta), but in aortic stenosis P2 actually goes before A2 (breathing will make this go away)

12

4 things that happen when you turn in symp NS

1 increase Hr
2- increase iontropy
3- increase arteriole constriction
4- increase venous constriction

13

three types of shock

hypovolemic
distributive
cardiogenic

14

hypovolemic shock

too little blood
due to endothelial damage, excessive secretion, dehydration

15

distributive shock

enough blood but in wrong place (veins not arteries)
due to sepsis (vasodilator actions), reflex (vaso-vagal syncope)

16

cardiogenic shock

inadequate filling of arteries caused by failure of cardiac pump
due to acute MI, pericardial tamponade, valve rupture PE, myocarditis

17

3 consequences of shock

multi-organ failure
neurohormonal response
death

18

2 differences between physiological and pathological hypertrophy

physiological- high ATPase myosin heavy chains and more SR

path- less ATPase myosin heavy chains and less SR

19

helpful and harmful of intropes

helpful- increase BP and SV
harmful- increase work (so worsen energy expenditure)

20

helpful and harmful of diuretics

helpful- decrease preload, EDV/P
harmful- decrease stroke volume

21

helpful and harmful vasodilators

helpful- decrease after load, so increase SV
harmful- decrease BP and tissue perfusion

22

helps systolic heart failure

inhibit neurohormonal signaling
modify mehcanical stress

23

eccentric hypertrophy compensates for

decreased shortening ability

24

treatment for eccentric hypetrophy

positive inotropic agents
diuretics
vasodilators
beta-blockers
aldosterone inhibitors
anticoagulants

25

louder subaortic murmur with

interventions that decrease left ventricular size or velocity of contraction

valsalva, standing, positive inotropic agents

26

treatment for dilated cardiomyopathy

ACEI, ARBS, Beta-blockers, diuretics, digitalis

27

treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

diuretics with caution, treat htn, treat Mischemia, decrease HR

28

Beck's Triad of physical signs of pericardial tampnade

decreased arterial pressure
increased venous pressure
quiet heart

29

low serum K can be indicative of

primary hyperaldosteronism

30

how can you diagnose a phenochromocytoma

metanephirnes
vanillymandelic acid