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Flashcards in Cardio Deck (43):
1

What are the four chmbers of the heart? What is the blood flow pattern?

R and L atrium
R and L ventricle

system/body > R atrium
> Left vent > pulmonary system/oxygenated > L atrium > L ventricle > system/body

2

What is systole and diastole?

systole = ventricle contraction
diastole - ventricle relaxation and filling of blood

3

What are the arteries of the heart?

R coronary - R atrium and vent, AV node
L coronary (L ant descending and circumflex) - left vent and atrium, SA node

4

What is normal conduction of the heart?

origin at SA node, atrium contract togehter, stimulates AV node, transmits to bundle of His and Purkinje fibers, ventricles contract (atrial kick)

5

What are symptoms of caridac conditions?

chest pain, palpitations, SOB
fatigue
dizzieness, syncope
edema - usually in dependent body parts/ LE, sudden wt gain

6

What is normal HR?
Tachy?
Brady?

60-100bpm
>100 Tachy

7

Where do you auscultate for the aortic valve? pulmonic valve? tricuspid? bicuspid?

 Aortic valve – 2nd R intercostal space
 Pulmonic valve – 2nd L intercostal space
 Tricuspid – 4th L intercostal space at sternal border
 Bicuspid – 5th intercostal space at midclavical area

8

What are the S1, S2 sounds?

S1 'lub' - closure of bicuspid and tricspid valves

S2 'dub' - closure of aortic and pulmonary valves

9

What is the normal cardiac cycles on an ECG?

 P wave – atrial depolarization/contraction
 PR interval – impulse from SA to AV node
 QRS wave – ventricular depolarization/contraction; atrial repolarization
 ST segment – beginning of ventricular repolarization/relax
 T wave – ventricular repolarization/relax
 QT interval – time for electrical systole

10

What is normal BP?

120/80

11

How do calculate MAP?

sum of systolic + twice diastolic / 3

12

What is normal RR for an adult, child, infant?
What is tachy? brady?
hyperpnea? dyspnea?

adult 12-20
child 20-30
infant 30-40

tachy >22
brady

13

What is normal SpO2?

98-100%

14

What is normal PaO2?

90-100mmHg

15

What is normal PaCO2?

35-45 mmHg

16

what is normal pH?

7.35-7.45
>7.45 alkalotic

17

What are normal WBC levels?

4300-10800
indicitive of status of immune system
increases in infection
decreases in aplastic anemia

18

What are normal RBC levels?

4.2-6.2
increase in polycynthemia
decrease in anemia

19

What are normal hemoglobin levels?

male 13-18
female 12-16

increase polycythemia, dehydration, shock
decrease in anemias, prolonged hemorrhage, RBC destruction

20

What is normal platelet count?

150,000-450,000

increase in chronic leukemia, hemoconcentration
decrease with thrombocytopenia, acute leukemia, aplastic anemia, cancer chemo

increased risk of bleeding with low levels

21

What are SandS of left heart failure?

Dyspnea, dry cough
Orthopnea
Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Pulmonary rales, wheezing
Hypotension
Tachycardia
Lightheadedness, dizziness
Cerebral hypoxia: irritability, restlessness, confusion, impaired memory, sleep disturbances
Fatigue, weakness
Poor exs tolerance
Enlarged heart on x ray
S3 sounds, maybe S4
Murmurs of mitral and tricuspid

22

What are SandS of right heart failure?

Hallmark signs of jugular vein distention and peripheral edema

Dependent edema
Weight gain
Ascites
Liver engorgement
Anorexia, nausea, bloating
Cyanosis
R upper quad pain
Jugular vein distension
R sided S3 sounds
Murmurs of pulmonary or tricuspid insufficiency

23

What are the activity restrictions for acute MI?acute HF?

MI - limited to 5 METS or 70% of age HRmax 4-6 weeks post MI

HF - O2 demand should not be increased
once medically managed, activity grandually increased

24

What is the function of beta blockers?

lols
reduces myocardial demand by reducing HR, decrease contractility, control arrythmias
reduces chest pain and BP

25

What do ACE inhibitors do?

prils
decrease BP

26

What do angiotension II receptor blockers do?

tans
decrease BP

27

What do nitrates/nitroglycerin do?

decrease preload through peripheral vasodilation, reduce myocardial O2 demand, reduce chest pain, may dilate coronary arteries and improve coronary blood flow

28

What do calcium channel blockers do?

inhibit flow of calcium ions, decrease HR, decrease contractility, dilate coronoary arteries, reduce BP, control arrythmias, reduce chest pain

29

How do you calculate ABI?
What is normal?
What is abnormal?

systolic pressure of LE divided by systolic pressure of UE

Normal 1-1.4
1.5 = fibrotic/not compressible

30

What are characteristics of arterial disease?

intermittent claudication
pain worse with exs
usually pain in calf
no edema
decreased/absent pulse
pale, shiny, dry skin - trophic changes
deep ulcers on lateral malleolus

31

What are characteristics of venous disease?

minimal pain
aching in LE in sitting (dependent)
edema!
dark thickened brown skin
cellulitis
ulcer at medial mall, shallow, EXUDATE!, irregular borders

32

What is primary and secondary lymphodema?

primary - congential

secondary - acquired

33

What is respiratory acidosis and its symptoms?

CO2 not exhaled enough
Decreased PCO2

hypoventilation, COPD

anxiety, restlessness, dyspnea, HA, confusion, coma

34

What is respiratory alkalosis and its symptoms?

CO2 is exhaled too much
increased PCO2 >45

hyperventilation, liver disease, sepsis

dizziness, syncope, tingling, numbness, early tetany

35

What is metabolic acidosis?

decreased bicarb HCO3

36

What is metabolic alkalosis?

increased bicarb HCO3 >26

vomiting, potassium depletion, diuretics, adrenal disease

vague symptoms, weakness, mental dullness, early tetany

37

What is hyperkalemia?

increased potassium ions

decreases rate and force of contraction

38

What is hypokalemia?

decreased potassium ions

arrhythmias, ventricular fibrilation

39

What is hypercalcemia?

increased calcium ions

increased heart actions

40

What is hypocalcemia?

decreased calcium ions

decreased heart actions

41

What is hypermagnesemia?

increased magnesium is a calcium channel blocker

arrhythmias, cardiac arrest

42

What is hypomagnesemia?

decreased magnesium

ventricular arrythmias, coronary artery vasospasm, sudden death

43

What is the AHA blood pressure definitions?

normal 160/100
hypertensive crisis >180/110