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Year 3 examinations > Cardio > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardio Deck (63)
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1

Order to cardio exam

Intro
General Inspection
Hands
Radial pulse
BP
Face
Palpate carotid artery
JVP
Inspect precordium
Palpate precordium
Auscultate precordium and neck
Examine back
Examine abdomen
Examine lower limbs
Complete examination

2

What is precordium

area of chest above where heart lies

3

What to say in intro

Ask for name and DOB
Introduce self
Consent
Wash hands

4

How to position patient for cardio exam

45 degrees
Ensure appropriate exposure and privacy

5

Things to look for in cardio general inspection around the bed

On oxygen?
ECG leads
GTN spray?

6

What is GTN spray for?

Glyceryl trinitrate- used to dilate coronary arteries to relieve chest pain

7

Things to look for in cardio general inspection around patient appearance

Are they distressed or nervous?
Short of breath?
Nutritional state- also look for straw diet eg

8

8 things to look for in cardio hands inspection

Capillary refill time <3 seconds
Clubbing
Splinter haemorrhages
Osler’s nodes
Janeway lesions
Peripheral cyanosis
Indicates local hypoxia
Tar staining
Xanthomata

9

What are splinter haemorrhages?

Tiny blood spots under nail- micro emboli despositions caused by infective endocaditis

10

What are osler nodes?

Tender, red palpable lesions on fingers

11

Cause of osler nodes

Immune complex deposition from infective endocarditis

12

What are janeway lesions

Non-tender, red lesions

13

Cause of janeway lesions

Deposition of septic
emboli and microabscess formation in infective
endocarditis

14

What is tar staining?

Black and brown staining on middle and index fingers where would hold cigarette

15

What is xanthomata

Lipid accumulation around tendons- appears as yellow marks

16

Observations of rythm in radial artery

Regular
Regularly irregular
Irregularly irregular

17

Additional findings when palpating radial pulse

Large volume collapsing pulse
Slow rising
Radio-radio delay
Radio-femoral delay

18

What does large volume collapsing pulse indicate

Aortic regurgitation

19

What does slow rising pulse indicate

Aortic stenosis

20

What does radio-radio delay between arms indicate

Aortic dissection or coarctation

21

What is aortic dissection

Inner layer of the aorta, the large blood vessel branching off the heart, tears. Blood surges through the tear, causing the inner and middle layers of the aorta to separate (dissect)

22

What is aortic coarctation

Narrowing of aorta- could be congenital

23

What is aortic regurgitation

Aortic valve is faulty and so blood leaks back into left ventricle from aorta

24

What is another name for aortic regurgitation

Aortic insufficiency

25

What is aortic stenosis

Narrowing of aortic valve leading to reduced passage of blood from left ventricle to aorta

26

What could disparity in BP between left and right arm indicate

Aortic dissection and coarctation

27

7 observations of face in cardio examination

Conjunctival pallor
Xanthelasma
Corneal arcus
Malar flush
High arched palate
Dental caries
Central cyanosis

28

What is conjunctival pallor

When pull down lower eye lid will see the whole lid has gone pale

29

What does conjunctival pallor indicate

Anaemia

30

What does xanthelasma indicate

hyperlipidaemia