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Flashcards in Cardio midterm-final Deck (45)
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Acute HF

mechanical insufficiency, heart fails to pump oxygenated blood to the body


Chronic HF

mechanical insufficiency associated with fluid retention in the body and lungs


Acute Cardiac Conditions: HTN

inc incidence of: CVA, MI, hemorrhage

Tx: stress management, dietary management, smoking cessation, meds (diuretics, vasodilators, beta blockers)


Acute cardiac conditions: HTN- ex guidelines

minimum of 20 mins/day 3x/week
recommend: 30 min, 5-7x/week RPE: 3-5 (40-70%)

strengthening: higher intensity, <6eps
endurance: low intensity, >15 reps


Acute cardiac condition: Angina

demands exceed supply (silent MI)
DM bluts the symptoms of angina

exercise with meds, know the triggers
if meds have no effect, seek further medical help


Acute cardiac condition: Uncomplicated MI

Uncomplicated: no lasting disability, recovery stable
complicated: dyarrythmias, thrombus, developing HF

tx: angioplasty, stents, bypass, Cardiac rehab

both start with necrotic tissue and pain


Chronic cardiac condition causes/ co-morbidities

systolic, diastolic, right sided (cor pulmonale), left sided (CHF)

causes: MI, HTN, pulmonary condition, valve condition, CAD,

co-morb- DM, obesity, sleep apnea


Chronic cardiac condition clin pic and treatment

dyspnea, tachypnea,
increase fluid retention, weight gain, JVD,
shallow breathing, poor exercise tolerance

tx: movement to prevent blood clots, mobilization, positioning, bed ex.
pulmonary hygiene: ACT, self coughing, drainage position only in pneumonia


Endurance training guidelines

sedentary: 30-60mins, 10 min bouts, 10-12 RPE, <6 METs

older: 40-50%, 1-4set of 10-15 reps
30-60s of isometrics, 2-4reps
20mins of balance/falls prevention, 2-4x/week


Chronic cardiac conditions: Pulm edema

cardiogenic: high pressure from LVF, fluid into alveoli

non-cardiogenic: low pressure, permeability of alveoli due to toxins/proteins

SOB, pink frothy sputum, anxiety


Chronic cardiac conditions: CAD

increase incidence of CVA, MI
risk factors:
monitor with EKG and vitals if available
Cardiac rehab


Chronic cardiac conditions: Valves/Defects:
artial/ventricular defect

secondary to congential or tumor


Chronic cardiac conditions: Valves/Defects:
valve replacements

rheum fever, sepsis, MI, stenosis, regurgitation, prolapse

metal replacement- artificial
pig valve replacement- natural


Chronic cardiac conditions: post sx precautions

day 1: bed rest
day 1 after:
UE restrictions according to surgeon
activities restriction to line and monitoring equipment
closely monitoring of EKG and vitals
closely monitoring exercise tolerance


Chronic cardiac conditions: PTCA

catheter threaded up to lesion area
balloon inflated to compress lesion


Chronic cardiac conditions: stent placements

stent placed around tip of PTCA
may use drug eluting stent
maintains luminal diameter


Chronic cardiac conditions: precautions of PTCA and Stents

same as valve/defect repair precautions


Chronic cardiac conditions: CABG

>90% blockage
LIMA, RA, saphenous veins
graft area above and below area of atherosclerosis


Chronic cardiac conditions: precautions s/p CABG


5-8lbs of UE usage
1-3 lbs of ROM if no sternal popping, cracking, instability
limit ROM with onset of pulling sensation


Grading scale of Sternal instabiliity

0- no instability
1- slight instability, no bony separation
2- moderate motion, <1 finger of bony separation
3- marked motion, 1-1.5 finger of bony separation
4- complete instability, >1.5 finger of bony separation


Electrophysiologic ablation

EP study done to ID specific spot of heart that initiates arrhythmia

if spot found, w/o active tissue at that spot, arrhythmia should be eliminated


Heart transplant

orthotopic- replaces the old heart, (most common)

heterotopic- places next to original heart, atria-atria, vent-vent


Peripheral vascular: Acute arterial disease

risks: HTN, DM, hyperlipidemia, age, PFH,

structured intermittent walking program of 30-45min 3x/wk for 12 weeks

tx: prevent pressure areas, improve venous return, monitor pump/pulse, avoid hip flexion/knee flexion, mobilization


Peripheral vascular: chronic arterial disease

increase circulation: slight dependent position, avoid tissue damage, risk mods, exercise


Peripheral vascular: acute venous disease


bed rest with anti-coagulant meds
once meds initiated, evidence supports immediate ambulation
moist heat


Peripheral vascular: chronic venous disease

intermittent compression
custom stockings

educate pt. on: cleaning stockings, compression, modalities, Unmaboot, ulcers


Lymph disease management

similar to chronic venous

manual lymph drainage by compression dressing

NO IV and BP on affected limb


Benefits of CR

increase metabolism, improved cholesterol, stabilized BP/HR, stabilized blood glucose, improved platelet, improved inflammatory markers


MET levels

<2, EOB, bed activities
3, ADLs, walking around in the room
4, walking in the hallway
5, flight of stairs
6, shoveling snow


ACSM guidelines for training

MET-time/week 500-1000

endurance: <50% 1RM
beg/sed/older: 40-50%
trained indv. 60-70%

endurance: 15-20 reps
beg/sed/older: 1-2 sets of 10-15
trained indv: 2-4 sets of 8-12