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Flashcards in cardio week 2 Deck (58)
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1

cardiac output

to transport blood through patent vessels for distribution in the tissues throughout the body

2

Impaired Perfusion Affected by

The Heart’s Ability to Pump
Decreased Volume
Arterial Obstruction

3

Primary

Hypertension
Coronary artery disease

4

Contributing risk factors

Advanced age
Diabetes
Tobacco use
Obesity
High serum cholesterol

5

heart patho

Inadequate cardiac output
Insufficient blood supply/oxygen to tissues
Myocardial hypertrophy
Pulmonary/systemic congestion

6

Primary causes

Conditions that directly damage the heart

7

Precipitating causes

Conditions that increase the workload of ventricles

8

Left-sided failure

Dyspnea
Orthopnea
Nocturnal dyspnea
S3 heart sound (gallop)
Pulmonary congestion (crackles)
Frothy sputum
Altered mental status
Symptoms of organ failure, such as oliguria

9

rshf

Jugular vein distention
Ascending dependent edema (legs, ankles)
Abdominal distention, ascites
Fatigue, weakness
Nausea and vomiting
Liver enlargement (hepatomegaly)
Weight gain
Polyuria at rest (noctural)

10

bnp

stored in ventircles under 100 100-300 present than increments of 100 for progression

11

chcking abg and platlets

thrombocytopenia under 150,000

12

Loop diuretics

Furosemide (Lasix)

13

Thiazide diuretics

Hydrochlorothiazide (Hydrodiuril)

14

Potassium-sparing diuretic

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

15

lasix adm

Administer Lasix IV no faster than 20mg/min

16

aldactone adm

watch potassium

17

ACE Inhibitors: Enalapril (Vasotec), Captopril (Capoten)

dry cough
increased k
face swelling

18

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

Increase contractility and improve cardiac output
Take the apical heart rate for 1 min
Hold the medication if apical pulse is less than 60/min and notify provider
Take digoxin dose at the same time each day
Report signs of toxicity

19

Nitroglycerin (Nitrostat)

Prevent coronary artery spasm and decrease myocardial oxygen demand
Remind the client that headache is a common side effect
Encourage the client to sit and lie down slowly

20

anticoags

Active bleeding
Peptic ulcer disease
History of cerebrovascular accident
Recent trauma

platelets less than 150,000 thrombocytopenia

21

mi vs angina

Pain unrelieved by rest or nitroglycerin and lasting for more than 15 min differentiates

22

Stable angina (exertional angina)

occurs with exercise or emotional stress and is relieved by rest or nitroglycerin (Nitrostat)

23

Unstable angina (pre-infarction angina)

occurs with exercise or emotional stress but it increases in severity, occurrence and duration over time

24

Variant angina (Prinzmetal’s angina)

is due to a coronary artery spam, often occurring during rest

25

cho

ldl 140
hdl 40
tri 150

26

Hyperlipidemia: Antilipemic

Cholesterol-lowering drug therapy

27

HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins): simvastatin (Zocor)

Inhibit cholesterol synthesis, decrease LDL, increase HDL

28

when to give hmg-coa
and what to look out for

Mostly given at night since cholesterol biosynthesis is higher at night
Monitor for liver damage and myopathy
Can cause Rhabdomyolysis

29

Cholestyramine (Questran), colestipol (Colestid)
bioacid sequastrants

increases ecrertion of cholestrol 20% drop in ldl

Mix with 60-180 ml of liquid and have the patient drink immediately to prevent irritation or obstruction in the GI tract
Give other drugs more than 2 hours before or 4 hours after this drug

30

Fenofibrate (Tricor), gemfibrozil (Lopid)

Decrease hepatic synthesis & secretion of VLDL.
50% reduction in VLDL and Increase in HDL
Less effective than the statins at lowering the LDL.
Use in combination with statins