Flashcards in cardiology Deck (30)
What is the mechanism of edema formation with cardiac tamponade?
Increase in hydrostatic pressure
What is characteristic of the jugular vein with cardiac tamponade apart from distention?
No jugular pulse
What is the origin of the normal/physiological jugular pulse?
Mitral valve closing
Give one differential for congestive heart failure in the bovine?
LSA, valvular endocarditis
Which heart sound (Systolic/diastolic) may be split in the bovine?
Systolic because there is asynchronous closure and the left heart contracts more strongly than the right heart
What is the most common cause of a murmur in calves?
Ventricular septal defect
How does endotoxin cause edema?
increase capillary permeability
Which organ show most edema associated with endotoxin?
Which bacteria is most commonly associated with valvular endocarditis?
What is mechanism of a positive pole test pole test?
Fibrin attachment pulls on the peritoneum and it causes activation of the nociceptors
What symptoms should alert you as to the presence of a bacteremia?
AV valve murmur and shifting lameness
Name one blood test which may alert you as to the presence of a low grade bacteremia.
What would you do to lower blood potassium levels?
Dextrose and insulin
Why does the heart sound soft in hypocalcemia in fresh cows?
What is the blood electrolyte profile like with a ruptured bladder?
Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia
Which valve is most commonly affected valvular endocarditis?
Right AV valve (tricuspid)
What is the underlying mechanism in high altitude disease?
Chronic alveolar hypoxemia
What deficiency in young rapid growing sheep can cause acute death?
What lesion can black leg (clostridium chovii) cause in the heart?
Name 2 characteristic ecg changes associated with hyperkalemia?
Dropped P waves and wide T waves
What is a predisposing cause of atrial fibrillation in cattle?
What is the normal heart rate in a cow?
What is diagnostic on clinical examination for a cow with septic pericarditis?
washing machine sounds
Name a anti-arrhythmogenic drug?
What is the toxic principle in fox glove causing arrhrythmia?
What effect does the parasympathetic system have on the heart?
What effect does organophosphates have on the heart and what antidote can be used?
What is the most common heart lesion in the calf causing cyanotic mucus membranes?
Tetralogy of Fallot
Molybdenum can interfere with the absorption of which trace mineral?