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Flashcards in cardiology Deck (30)
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1

What is the mechanism of edema formation with cardiac tamponade?

Increase in hydrostatic pressure

2

What is characteristic of the jugular vein with cardiac tamponade apart from distention?

No jugular pulse

3

What is the origin of the normal/physiological jugular pulse?

Mitral valve closing

4

Give one differential for congestive heart failure in the bovine?

LSA, valvular endocarditis

5

Which heart sound (Systolic/diastolic) may be split in the bovine?

Systolic because there is asynchronous closure and the left heart contracts more strongly than the right heart

6

What is the most common cause of a murmur in calves?

Ventricular septal defect

7

How does endotoxin cause edema?

increase capillary permeability

8

Which organ show most edema associated with endotoxin?

lung

9

Which bacteria is most commonly associated with valvular endocarditis?

Turpurella pyogenes

10

What is mechanism of a positive pole test pole test?

Fibrin attachment pulls on the peritoneum and it causes activation of the nociceptors

11

What symptoms should alert you as to the presence of a bacteremia?

AV valve murmur and shifting lameness

12

Name one blood test which may alert you as to the presence of a low grade bacteremia.

Hyperglobuliniemia

13

What would you do to lower blood potassium levels?

Dextrose and insulin

14

Why does the heart sound soft in hypocalcemia in fresh cows?

Decrease contractility

15

What is the blood electrolyte profile like with a ruptured bladder?

Hyponatremia and hyperkalemia

16

Which valve is most commonly affected valvular endocarditis?

Right AV valve (tricuspid)

17

What is the underlying mechanism in high altitude disease?

Chronic alveolar hypoxemia

18

What deficiency in young rapid growing sheep can cause acute death?

Vit E/Se

19

What lesion can black leg (clostridium chovii) cause in the heart?

Necrotizing myocarditis

20

Name 2 characteristic ecg changes associated with hyperkalemia?

Dropped P waves and wide T waves

21

What is a predisposing cause of atrial fibrillation in cattle?

Displaced abomasum

22

What is the normal heart rate in a cow?

50-80bpm

23

What is diagnostic on clinical examination for a cow with septic pericarditis?

washing machine sounds

24

Name a anti-arrhythmogenic drug?

Lidocaine

25

What is the toxic principle in fox glove causing arrhrythmia?

Digitalis

26

What effect does the parasympathetic system have on the heart?

Bradycardia

27

What effect does organophosphates have on the heart and what antidote can be used?

Bradycardia. Atropine

28

What is the most common heart lesion in the calf causing cyanotic mucus membranes?

Tetralogy of Fallot

29

Molybdenum can interfere with the absorption of which trace mineral?

Copper

30

Which foreign animal disease can cause a necrotizing myocarditis in African buffalo?

Foot and mouth disease