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Flashcards in Cardiology_UW_Pretest Deck (63)
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1

TCA overdose should be treated with

Sodium bicarbonate

2

Turner syndrome is a/w karyotype?

XO karyotype

3

Marfan syndrome mutation?

15a21.1

4

Incidence of congenital heart disease in population is ? If one child has CHD, risk for second child? If 2 children have CHD, risk for third is?

1%; 2-6%; 20-30%

5

Kawasaki presentation

Prolonged fever, polymorphous rash, extremity changes (swelling in early period, peeling in later), non-purulent conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy, oral mucosal changes.

6

How do you diagnose infective endocarditis

Serial positive blood cultures and echo findings of vegetations and mycoardial abscesses

7

Tx for infective endocarditis

Appropriate antibiotic for 4-8 weeks; surgical intervention is reserved for patients with valvular obstruction, CHF or abscess.

8

Organisms that cause IE?

Strep, Staph, coag neg strep pneumo, HACEK organisms (haemophilis, actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, eikenella corrodens, kingella)

9

SVT is characterized by what heart rate

Above 250bpm

10

Adenosine is used to treat?

SVT if maneuvers don't work. It's a vasodilator

11

First line tx for SVT

Maneuvers like carotid massage, face immersion in cold water, voluntary straining

12

Ebstein anomaly murmur

Tricuspid regurg murmur, mid-diastolic murmur (due to tricuspid stenosis), quadruple rhythm (s3 and s4)

13

Presentation of juvenile idiopathic arthritis?

1) Polyarthritis (five or more joints, systemic sx not so severe or persistent) 2) pauciarticular (4 or fewer joints, LE joints, extra-articular disease) or 3) systemic disease (severe constitutional disease, systemic sx prior to arthritis, rheumatoid rash, high spiking fevers, also known as still's disease).

14

What kind of swelling can JIA cause?

Spinle shaped swelling of finger joints

15

LVH, L v impulse with left axis deviation and left ventricular hypertrophy due to a congenital heart disease, makes you think of?

Tricuspid atresia. In tricuspid atresia, there's hypoplastic RV => no right axis deviation => left axis deviation

16

Neonatal lupus can cause what heart condition?

Congenital heart block. Rare manifestation of transferred maternal IgG autoantibodies. Infants can have thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, rash and liver dysfunction.

17

Turner syndrome phenotype

Webbed neck, widely spaced nipples, narrow high arched palate, low set ears, bicuspid aortic valve, coarctation of the aorta, horse shoe kidneys, streak ovaries, amenorrhea, infertility

18

Common cardiac abnormalities with turner syndrome

Do echo to check for 1) bicuspid aortic valve 2) coarctation of aorta and 3) aortic root dilation

19

VSDs are a/w mostly with?

Aneuploidys. 13, 18 and 21.

20

MVP is a/w patients with what?

Connective tissue disorders (marfan, ehlers danlos, OI)

21

Most common congenial heart disease in neonatal period

Transposition of the great arteries

22

PE and Xray findings for TGA

Loud single S2, VSD murmur may or may not be present depending on whether there is a VSD; egg on a string heart (narrow mediastinum)

23

Tx for TGA?

Start prostaglandins immediately to keep PDA open till septostomy of surgical repair can be done.

24

Most common congenital heart disease after neonatal period

Tetralogy of Fallot

25

What are the precordial leads

V1-V3

26

Stridor due to vascular ring improves with what maneuver and do not improve with what meds?

Neck extension; don't improve with steroids, racemic epinephrine or bronchodilators

27

In older intants an children, inspiratory stridor is most commonly caused by?

Croup (laryngotracheobronchitis); a/w barky cough, fever, rhinorrhea

28

In infants

antomotic abnormalities like vascular rings

29

What is the distinguishing feature of laryngomalacia

Severe stridor between 4 and 8 months; worsens in supine position, improves in prone position

30

Infants with vascular rings (before age 1) present with what symptoms?

Respiratory or esophageal sx such as stridor, wheezing, cough dysphagia