Cardiomyopathy Flashcards Preview

Med Surg III > Cardiomyopathy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiomyopathy Deck (36):
1

What is the best way to know if there's a problem with the heart?

Echocardiogram (ECG)

2

What are the 3 types of cardiomyopathy?

Dilated
Hypertrophic
Restrictive

3

What is the most common type of cardiomyopathy?

Dilated

4

What is dilated cardiomyopathy?

Ventricles enlarge but aren't able to pump enough blood for the body's needs
*has hard time contracting

5

When does dilated cardiomyopathy usually happen?

With CAD or INFECTION (most likely the flu)
Hormone disorders, too much alcohol, malnutrition.

6

S/S dilated cardiomyopathy

B/P normal, but high heart rate
Edema
Leaky valves
*Clot to brain

7

What ages are most common for dilated cardiomyopathy?

20-60, but can happen at any age

8

What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

Walls of the ventricles thicken and become stiff, even though workload is not increased.

9

What percent of people die from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

4%

10

Which type of cardiomyopathy is the "athlete" heart?

Hypertrophic

11

S/S of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Fainting
SOB
Palpitations

12

What is restrictive cardiomyopathy (2 types)?

Walls of the heart stiffen, but not thicken and has a hard time filling with blood between contractions

13

What is the least common type of cardiomyopathy?

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

14

Type A restrictive cardiomyopathy

replaced with scar tissue (could be from infections)

15

Type B restrictive cardiomyopaty

muscle is infiltrated with abnormal substances

16

S/S of restrictive cardiomyopathy

SOB
Chest pain
Fainting

17

70% die from restrictive cardiomyopathy within _ years

5

18

Management of cardiomyopathies

Determining and managing possible underlying causes

19

Endo-

inside

20

Myo-

middle (muscle)

21

Peri-

outer

22

What is infective endocarditis?

An infection of the lining of the heart and usually the heart valves.

23

S/S of infective endocarditis

Fever unknown origin
Tachycardia
Fatigue
Sweating
Anemia
Joint pain
Chills
Painful nodules

24

Who usually gets infective endocarditis?

Men over 60

25

Acute infective endocarditis

rapid onset and life threatening within days

26

Subacute infective endocarditis

gradual subtle onset

27

What is pericarditis?

Sudden, painful inflammation of pericardium that causes fluid and blood components to pour into the pericardial space

28

What is pericardial effusion?

Fluid inside the pericardium

29

S/S pericardial effusion

Pain when swallowing, coughing, or taking a deep breathe

Dyspnea

Tachycardia

Hoarseness hiccups

30

What is cardiac tamponade?

No room to pump due to accumulation of fluid

31

Signs of cardiac tamponade

Chest pain in left shoulder and lung sounds=rub!

32

Pericarditis=

Culture, then start antibiotics!

33

What is myocarditis?

Focal or diffuse inflammation of the heart muscle

34

What is pericardiocentesis?

needle in heart to relieve pressure

35

What is rheumatic endocarditis ALWAYS caused by?

Strep

36

How does a patient with a cardiomyopathy prevent endocarditis?

Antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures and surgery, including GI and GU procedures.