Cardiomyopathy, Myocarditis, Pericardial Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiomyopathy, Myocarditis, Pericardial Disease Deck (26):
1

What is cardiomyopathy and what are the 3 types of cardiomyopathy?

Primary abnormality of the myocardium
-cardiac dysfunction not attributable to the pressure or volume overload
*primary disease of myocardium

1. dilated cardiomyopathy
2. hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
3. restrictive cardiomyopathy

2

What is dilated cardiomyopathy? What do you see on a trichrome stain?

1. most common
2. contractile (systolic) dysfunction
3. four chamber dilation
4. 2-3 X normal weight

Trichrome stain:
myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis

3

What are non-genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy?

1. myocarditis
2. peri partum
3. toxic (e.g. alcohol)
4. idiopathic

4

What are genetic causes of dilated cardiomyopathy?

cytoskeleton or mitochondria
-->defect in force generation, force transmission and or myocyte signaling

5

What does dilated cardiomyopathy lead to? How do you treat it?

progressive systolic congestive heart
-heart failure symptoms
-arrhythmias
-mural thrombi with embolic complications

Treat:
Medical therapy
Heart transplant

6

What is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? What does it lead to?

Idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS)
Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM)
1. marked LV myocardial hypertrophy
-septum>free wall hypertrophied -->banana shaped LV cavity

Leads to:
1. abnormal diastolic filling
2. left ventricular outflow obstruction
-septal hypertrophy
-anterior mitral valve leaflet contacts ventricular septum

7

What does hypertrophic cardiomyopathy look like histologically?

hypertrophied myocytes
haphazard pattern
interstitial fibrosis

8

What are the causes of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?

100% genetic causes
-autosomal dominant
-variable expression
-mutation in genes that encode proteins of sarcomeres

9

What are some outcomes to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy? What are the treatments?

1. diastolic heart failure
2. exertional dyspnea
3. harsh systolic ejection murmur
4. anginal pain
5. intractable heart failure
6. arrhythmias-some have defib put in becuase can go into fatal arrhythmias
7. SUDDEN DEATH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

Treatments:
Medical therapy enhancing ventricular relaxation
Surgical excision of muscle

10

What is restrictive cardiomyopathy?

primary decrease in ventricular compliance
-firm/stiff myocardium
-ability to expand markedly limited
-impeded left ventricular filling during diastole
-systolic function preserved
-LV cavity size normal

11

What could cause restrictive cardiomyopathy?

idiopathic, radiation fibrosis, amyloidosis (amyloid build up), sarcoidosis (granulomas), inborn errors of metabolism, endocardial fibroelastosis, loeffler endomyocarditis (eosinophilia)

12

What is an amyloid?

misfolded proteins
deposits in extracellular space
causes tissue damage
multiple proteins can deposit as amyloid
Common features:
1. beta pleated sheet configuraion
2. congo red staining in tissue
-apple green under polarized light

13

What is myocarditis?

inflammatory process resulting in myocardial injury

14

What are infectious ways of getting myocarditis?

Viruses
1. Enterovirus- Coxsackie A and B
-most common etiology in US***
2. cytomegalovirus
3. HIV

Bacteria
1. Diphtheria
2. Borrelia burgdorferi-Lyme disease

Parasites
1. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chaga's disease)
-endemic in areas of south africa
2. trichinosis
3. toxoplasmosis

15

What are noninfectious ways of getting myocarditis?

Immune mediated
1. Hypersensitivity reactions
-drugs
2. Rheumatic fever
3. Giant cell myocarditis
4. sarcoidosis

16

What are clinical manifestations of myocarditis and what can it lead to?

1. Asymptomatic or nonspecific symptoms-fever, fatigue
Lead to
-Congestive heart failure
-Acute congestive heart failure
-arrhythmias
-progression to dilated cardiomyopathy-virus resolves itself but still ongoing inflammatory injurty in heart

17

What can fill a pericardial effusion? What does a slow effusion do? What happens with a fast effusion?

clear yellow serous fluid-severe heart failure, blood-trauma or malignancy, or pus-bacterial
Slow: may not be clinically significant, globular enlargement of heart on CXR
Rapid: compress atria and vena cava, compress ventricles, restrict cardiac filling, cardiac tamponade

18

What is pericarditis? What causes it?

-inflammation of pericardium
-usually secondary to cardiac, thoracic, or systemic process

19

What is fibrinous pericarditis?

1. irregular shaggy pericardial surface
-acute viral pericarditis
-uremia
-acute rheumatic fever
(bread and butter)
exam:
pericardial friction rub

20

What is suppurative (fibrinopurulent) pericarditis?

acute bacterial infection
-extension
-seeding
-Neutrophils

21

What causes hemorrhagic pericarditis?

Tb
Maligancy

22

What causes caseous pericarditis?

Tb

23

What symptoms are seen with pericarditis?

-silent
-chest pain
-systemic complaints
-friction rub
-EKG changes (diffuse ST elevation)

24

What can happen in healing of pericarditis?

1. -Focal plaque-like thickening
2. Mild adhesions
3. constrictive pericarditis

25

What is constrictive pericarditis? How is it treated?

-pericardial space obliterated
-heart surrounded by dense scar
-diastolic expansion limitied-reduced cardiac output
-Tb, suppurative

Treatment
-Pericardiectomy

26

How are heart biopsies obtained?

biotome inserted transversely into right side of heart
-septal endomyocardial biopsied