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Clinical Medicine Final Exam > Cardiopulmonary > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiopulmonary Deck (117)
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1

what is the pathophysiology of iron deficiency anemia?

inadequate function of red blood cells (low count)

2

define hyperproliferative.

production of an inadequate # of RBC to maintain homeostasis

3

what are 4 risk factors of IDA?

* loss of blood
- premenopausal women*
- GI
- trauma
- dietary

4

describe IDA symptoms.

general non-specific

5

IDA has minimal signs. Name 5.

- Skin pallor (+ conjunctiva)
- Tachycardia
- Pica: craving nonnutritive iron (dirt)
- Blood in the stool
- Children – development problems

STPBC

6

list the test results of IDA.

- Low serum ferritin (iron)
- Low RBC count
- Low hemoglobin

7

what are 5 sequela of IDA?

- Heart problems
- Depression
- Increased risk of infections
- Motor or cognitive development delays in children
- Retinal hemorrhage

HIDMR

8

t/f: for IDA, iron supplementation is key but challenging.

t

9

list 3 management options for IDA.

- iron supplementation
- IV
- Diet

10

t/f: it is not important to find the source for IDA

f: you must find the source - pcp must be involved.

11

what are some other names for systemic hypertension?

- hypertension
- primary hypertension
- essential hypertension
- idiopathic hypertension
- HBP
- HTN

12

do most people have primary or secondary HTN?

primary

13

what is the MOA for primary HTN

unknown

14

what are three causes of secondary HTN?

1. Pregnancy
2. Cushing syndrome
3. Pheochromocytoma

15

what are three factors that determine BP?

1. Sympathetic nervous system
2. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
3. Plasma volume (how much water is in the blood)

16

what is the blood pressure formula?

Blood Pressure (BP) = Cardiac Output (CO) * Systemic Vascular Resistance (SVR)

17

Systolic blood pressure =

maximum pressure at contraction of ventricles
inflow >outflow

18

Diastolic blood pressure =

minimum pressure in arteries
inflow < outflow

19

t/f: Vascular resistance is the elasticity of the arteries

t

20

Arteries are elastic to accommodate for the

pulsatile force

21

Arterioles are less elastic to transition to a:

continuous flow of blood

22

what detects BP to give immediate auto-regulation?

baroreceptors - in walls of aorta and carotid sinus

23

what organ provides long-term auto-regulation of BP?

kidney

24

does the renin-angiotensin system lower or raise BP?

raise

25

what is the biggest risk factor association for HTN?

age

26

other than age, what are 6 other risk factors for developing HTN?

- genetics
- obesity
- occupation
- salt sensitivity
- hyperinsulinemia
- male

GOOSHM

27

the prognosis for HTN is worse with what 5 risk factors?

- male
- African American
- smoker
- atherosclerosis
- excessive alcohol

28

if a patient has HTN, are they symptomatic (if so, list sp.) or asymptomatic?

asymptomatic

29

what is a hypertensive urgency?

Blood pressure > 180/120

30

what is a hypertensive emergency?

BP elevated PLUS end organ damage
- Retinal disease
- Kidney disease
- Hypertensive encephalopathy