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Anatomy > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (113):
1

vascular

blood vessels

2

where is the cardiovascular system located?

in the thoracic cavity

3

what does the thoracic cavity contain?

the heart and lungs

4

what is the lungs portion of the thoracic cavity called?

plural cavity

5

what does the heart portion of the thoracic cavity called?

pericardial cavity

6

where is the pericardial cavity located?

behind the sternum, off set to the left, 2/3

7

what are the subcavities of the thoracic cavity called?

plural cavity and pericardial cavity

8

cardio

heart

9

whenever we need something that is mandatory for our species, what do we put around it?

a sac

10

what is the name of the sac that we put around the heart?

a pericardial sac

11

how many layers does the pericardial sac have?

2 layers

12

all the sacs have two layers, except for what? and how many layers does it have?

the brain. it has 3 layers

13

what is the layer in the pericardium that can produce fluid?

the serous (inside) layer

14

how many layers does the serous layer have?

2
parietal and visceral layer

15

what is the fluid that the serous layer around the heart produces?

pericardial fluid

16

when we say that the pericardial subcavity is mediastinum, what does that mean?

behind the sternum

17

what is a ventricle?

the ventricles are the pumps

18

what do the atria/atriums in the heart do?

the recieve the blood

19

where does the right atria receive blood from?

right atria receives the blood from the body

20

after the right atria receives blood from the body, where does the blood go?

it goes into the right ventricle

21

what does the right ventricle do with the blood?

the right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs

22

when the blood is in the right atria and right ventricle, is there any oxygen in the blood?

no, the blood is unoxygenated; which is why the right ventricle has to pump the blood to the lungs, so that it can receive oxygen

23

from the lungs, where does the blood go?

comes back to the left atrium

24

when the blood comes back to the left atria from the lungs, what is the blood rich with?

OXYGEN

25

when the blood leaves the left atria, where does it go?

left ventricle

26

from the left ventricle, where does the blood go?

to the body

27

is your blood ever mixed?

no, that is what makes it efficient.

28

true or false: when the blood leaves the right ventricle, it is low in oxygen.

TRUE

29

what is the function of the heart?

to pump the blood throughout the body because the cells of the tissue can't move

30

what is the apex?

the point of the heart

31

what is the epicardium?

the 3 different "layers"/tissue of the heart

32

name the layers of the epicardium

epicardium
myocardium
endocardium

33

what layer of the heart is the epicarium?

the outside layer

34

what layer of the heart is the myocardium?

the middle layer
also the cardia muscle layer

myo- : muscle

35

what layer of the heart is the endocardium

the inside layer

36

why is the epicardium and the visceral layer associated with eachother?

because in the pericardial sac, they are so close that they are almost fused together

37

what is the difference between epicardium and the visceral layer?

the epicardium is the outside layer of the heart.
the visceral layer is the inside layer of the percardial sac.

38

function of pericardial fluid

reduce friction and pull away heat

39

pericarditis

the condition of producing extra pericardial fluid or an infection of pericardial fluid

40

what happens in pericarditis

shortness of breath, fatigue because you can't get oxygen

41

what is inflammation of the myocardium called?

myocarditis

-carditis : inflammation

42

how many chambers of the heart are there?

4

43

explain the process of the chambers of the heart

chamber 1.) receives all the blood from the whole body
2.) pumps it to lungs bc deficient of oxygen
3.) comes from lungs
4.) pumps it to the whole body

44

what is the largest chamber of the heart?

they are all the same

45

what kind of circulatory system is the heart?

a closed circulatory system, which means you don't add or take from it

46

what happens when blood leaves chamber 4 and goes to the body?

it loses oxygen so it has to go through the whole cycle again

47

where does blood get cleaned out?

blood can pick up cell waste, and it gets cleaned out in the kidney

48

what are the 4 chambers of the heart divided into

2 atriums
2 ventricles

49

essentially, what is the heart beat?

the heart beat is just the valve of the heart slamming shut

50

how many valves of the heart are there

4

51

what are the subcategories of the 4 valves of the heart?

2 atrioventricular valves
2 semilunar valves

52

what do valves do?

pushing blood to the least resistant

53

where do you find the atrioventricular valves?

lies between the ventricles

54

what is another name for the right atrioventricular valve?

tricuspid valve

55

where is the papillary muscle in the heart? how many are there? what do they do?

stick up from the bottom of the ventricle

3 of them

anchor the chordae tendanae

56

what do the papillary muscles attach to?

they attach to the cusps

57

what attaches the papillary muscles to the cusps?

chordae tendanae

58

what is the defition of chordae tendane

attach cups to floor of ventricle by way of papillary muscle

59

what happens when the blood fills up the chamber of the heart?

the heart contracts and slams the valve shut. the valves shut on both sides simultaneously *LUBDUB*

60

how much does the atria pump?

about 20% of the blood

61

where does the other 80% of the pump come from?

the other 80% comes from because the concentration is going from higher to lower

62

when blood leaves chambers 1 or 3, why does it leave?

bc we have higher concentration in one, and a lower concentration in another

63

how much does the pressure go to?

it goes to 80% and then stops because the pressure is building up to much, and then the other 20% is the pump from the atria

64

after the atria pumps the last 20%, then what?

the ventricles slam shut and constrict

65

when something is prolapsed, what does that mean?

going a direction it's not supposed to go

66

if the chordae tendonae tears, what happens to the tricuspid valve?

it becomes prolapsed because the blood is going to go somewhere it's not supposed to

67

what does atrial fibrillation mean?

that the atrium is not constricting at a rate that is conducive with the rest of the heart and is inefficient with the 20%

68

can you survive with atrial fibrillation?

yes, you will just be fatigue

69

what happens when you have ventral fibrillation?

dead

70

how are the cusps on the right side different from the left?

the left side only has two cusps and the right has 3

71

what is the valve leading out of the 2 and 4 chamber called?

semilunar valve

72

what is the valve leading out of number 2 called?

pulmonary semilunar valve

73

where does the pulmonary semilunar valve go out to?

the lungs

74

what is the valve coming out of chamber 4?

aortic semilunar valve

75

the valve leading to the aorta is called the

aortic semilunar valve

76

what is the difference between an artery and a vein?

arteries carry blood away from the heart

veins carry blood towards the heart

77

when do arteries carry oxygenated blood?

arteries carry blood in all cases except the pulmonary circuit

78

when do veins carry unoxygenated blood in all cases except when?

veins carry unoxygenated blood in all cases except the pulmonary circuit

79

how many circuit are there and what are they?

there are 3 circuits
one going to the body : systemic circuit
one going to the lungs: pulmonary
one going to the heart: coronary

80

what is the auricle of the heart?

the little flap in the heart that can expand a little bit because it is a reservoir on the atrium

81

when you get a rush of blood to your heart, how does the auricle help?

you can store a little blood in the auricle and drop a little bit as you go on until it's balanced again

82

where can you find the auricle?

on the left and right atrium

83

when a heart is void of blood, the extra tissue becomes something. what does it become?

trabecula

84

when the tissues become trabecula because the heart is void of blood, what does that mean?

that wrinkles form on the inside chambers of heart

85

where is the pulmonary semilunar valve located?

attached to the wall

86

where does the pulmonary trunk go?

the lungs

87

what's the function of the lung?

to get oxygen out of the environment and into the blood
does a little carbon dioxide

88

the left atrial ventricular valvue has three names, what are they?

left AV valve
bicuspid
mitral valve

89

of the four valves, which one seems like it has to deal with the most pressure?

bicuspid

90

why does the bicuspid deal with the most pressure?

when the left ventricle contracts, it has to shut with such force that it has to shoot blood to anywhere in the body and have the pressure to come back

91

which valve is usually the one replaced because of leakage/damage/pressure?

bicuspid because of the leaks and pressure

92

where does the aorta come out of?

the left atrium

93

how many parts of the aorta divided into and what are they?

-ascending aorta
- aortic arch
-descending aorta

94

which side of the heart is thicker?

the left side because it has to be strong to send blood all over the body, the right side only has to be able to send it to the lungs

95

how much thicker is the left side of the heart then the right?

x4

96

coronary artery

branch off aorta made of tissue that supplies to the heart

97

what is the first branch of the aorta?

coronary artery

98

brachiocephalic

branch that gives to arm and head; supplies to right side

first brach on the arch

99

where does the left common carotid going

the head

second branch off of the aortic arch

100

where does the left subclavian branch go to?

right under the clavical

third branch off the aortic arch

101

what are the branches off the aortic arch?

1.) brachiocephalic
2.) left common carotid
3.) left subclavian

102

what is the tissue that holds the aortic arch in place?

ligamentum arteriosum

103

when you're developing as an embrio or fetus, you're using mom's heart to pump your blood. what is the tube that does that?

ductus arteriosum

104

the vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta is called

the ductus arteriosum

105

what is the iliac arterie?

the iliac artery is where the descending aorta terminates

106

where does the descending aorta terminate to?

iliac arteries

107

the inferior vena cava forms from what?

the iliac veins

108

what branch supplies the kidney?

renal artery

109

what supplies the spleen?

spleenic

110

what supplies the stomach?

gastric

111

the intestinal branch supplies where

intestines

112

the tissue that holds the intestine in it's form is called

the mesenteric

113

hepatic goes to

liver