Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (113):
where is the cardiovascular system located?
in the thoracic cavity
what does the thoracic cavity contain?
the heart and lungs
what is the lungs portion of the thoracic cavity called?
what does the heart portion of the thoracic cavity called?
where is the pericardial cavity located?
behind the sternum, off set to the left, 2/3
what are the subcavities of the thoracic cavity called?
plural cavity and pericardial cavity
whenever we need something that is mandatory for our species, what do we put around it?
what is the name of the sac that we put around the heart?
a pericardial sac
how many layers does the pericardial sac have?
all the sacs have two layers, except for what? and how many layers does it have?
the brain. it has 3 layers
what is the layer in the pericardium that can produce fluid?
the serous (inside) layer
how many layers does the serous layer have?
parietal and visceral layer
what is the fluid that the serous layer around the heart produces?
when we say that the pericardial subcavity is mediastinum, what does that mean?
behind the sternum
what is a ventricle?
the ventricles are the pumps
what do the atria/atriums in the heart do?
the recieve the blood
where does the right atria receive blood from?
right atria receives the blood from the body
after the right atria receives blood from the body, where does the blood go?
it goes into the right ventricle
what does the right ventricle do with the blood?
the right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs
when the blood is in the right atria and right ventricle, is there any oxygen in the blood?
no, the blood is unoxygenated; which is why the right ventricle has to pump the blood to the lungs, so that it can receive oxygen
from the lungs, where does the blood go?
comes back to the left atrium
when the blood comes back to the left atria from the lungs, what is the blood rich with?
when the blood leaves the left atria, where does it go?
from the left ventricle, where does the blood go?
to the body
is your blood ever mixed?
no, that is what makes it efficient.
true or false: when the blood leaves the right ventricle, it is low in oxygen.
what is the function of the heart?
to pump the blood throughout the body because the cells of the tissue can't move
what is the apex?
the point of the heart
what is the epicardium?
the 3 different "layers"/tissue of the heart
name the layers of the epicardium
what layer of the heart is the epicarium?
the outside layer
what layer of the heart is the myocardium?
the middle layer
also the cardia muscle layer
myo- : muscle
what layer of the heart is the endocardium
the inside layer
why is the epicardium and the visceral layer associated with eachother?
because in the pericardial sac, they are so close that they are almost fused together
what is the difference between epicardium and the visceral layer?
the epicardium is the outside layer of the heart.
the visceral layer is the inside layer of the percardial sac.
function of pericardial fluid
reduce friction and pull away heat
the condition of producing extra pericardial fluid or an infection of pericardial fluid
what happens in pericarditis
shortness of breath, fatigue because you can't get oxygen
what is inflammation of the myocardium called?
-carditis : inflammation
how many chambers of the heart are there?
explain the process of the chambers of the heart
chamber 1.) receives all the blood from the whole body
2.) pumps it to lungs bc deficient of oxygen
3.) comes from lungs
4.) pumps it to the whole body
what is the largest chamber of the heart?
they are all the same
what kind of circulatory system is the heart?
a closed circulatory system, which means you don't add or take from it
what happens when blood leaves chamber 4 and goes to the body?
it loses oxygen so it has to go through the whole cycle again
where does blood get cleaned out?
blood can pick up cell waste, and it gets cleaned out in the kidney
what are the 4 chambers of the heart divided into
essentially, what is the heart beat?
the heart beat is just the valve of the heart slamming shut
how many valves of the heart are there
what are the subcategories of the 4 valves of the heart?
2 atrioventricular valves
2 semilunar valves
what do valves do?
pushing blood to the least resistant
where do you find the atrioventricular valves?
lies between the ventricles
what is another name for the right atrioventricular valve?
where is the papillary muscle in the heart? how many are there? what do they do?
stick up from the bottom of the ventricle
3 of them
anchor the chordae tendanae
what do the papillary muscles attach to?
they attach to the cusps
what attaches the papillary muscles to the cusps?
what is the defition of chordae tendane
attach cups to floor of ventricle by way of papillary muscle
what happens when the blood fills up the chamber of the heart?
the heart contracts and slams the valve shut. the valves shut on both sides simultaneously *LUBDUB*
how much does the atria pump?
about 20% of the blood
where does the other 80% of the pump come from?
the other 80% comes from because the concentration is going from higher to lower
when blood leaves chambers 1 or 3, why does it leave?
bc we have higher concentration in one, and a lower concentration in another
how much does the pressure go to?
it goes to 80% and then stops because the pressure is building up to much, and then the other 20% is the pump from the atria
after the atria pumps the last 20%, then what?
the ventricles slam shut and constrict
when something is prolapsed, what does that mean?
going a direction it's not supposed to go
if the chordae tendonae tears, what happens to the tricuspid valve?
it becomes prolapsed because the blood is going to go somewhere it's not supposed to
what does atrial fibrillation mean?
that the atrium is not constricting at a rate that is conducive with the rest of the heart and is inefficient with the 20%
can you survive with atrial fibrillation?
yes, you will just be fatigue
what happens when you have ventral fibrillation?
how are the cusps on the right side different from the left?
the left side only has two cusps and the right has 3
what is the valve leading out of the 2 and 4 chamber called?
what is the valve leading out of number 2 called?
pulmonary semilunar valve
where does the pulmonary semilunar valve go out to?
what is the valve coming out of chamber 4?
aortic semilunar valve
the valve leading to the aorta is called the
aortic semilunar valve
what is the difference between an artery and a vein?
arteries carry blood away from the heart
veins carry blood towards the heart
when do arteries carry oxygenated blood?
arteries carry blood in all cases except the pulmonary circuit
when do veins carry unoxygenated blood in all cases except when?
veins carry unoxygenated blood in all cases except the pulmonary circuit
how many circuit are there and what are they?
there are 3 circuits
one going to the body : systemic circuit
one going to the lungs: pulmonary
one going to the heart: coronary
what is the auricle of the heart?
the little flap in the heart that can expand a little bit because it is a reservoir on the atrium
when you get a rush of blood to your heart, how does the auricle help?
you can store a little blood in the auricle and drop a little bit as you go on until it's balanced again
where can you find the auricle?
on the left and right atrium
when a heart is void of blood, the extra tissue becomes something. what does it become?
when the tissues become trabecula because the heart is void of blood, what does that mean?
that wrinkles form on the inside chambers of heart
where is the pulmonary semilunar valve located?
attached to the wall
where does the pulmonary trunk go?
what's the function of the lung?
to get oxygen out of the environment and into the blood
does a little carbon dioxide
the left atrial ventricular valvue has three names, what are they?
left AV valve
of the four valves, which one seems like it has to deal with the most pressure?
why does the bicuspid deal with the most pressure?
when the left ventricle contracts, it has to shut with such force that it has to shoot blood to anywhere in the body and have the pressure to come back
which valve is usually the one replaced because of leakage/damage/pressure?
bicuspid because of the leaks and pressure
where does the aorta come out of?
the left atrium
how many parts of the aorta divided into and what are they?
- aortic arch
which side of the heart is thicker?
the left side because it has to be strong to send blood all over the body, the right side only has to be able to send it to the lungs
how much thicker is the left side of the heart then the right?
branch off aorta made of tissue that supplies to the heart
what is the first branch of the aorta?
branch that gives to arm and head; supplies to right side
first brach on the arch
where does the left common carotid going
second branch off of the aortic arch
where does the left subclavian branch go to?
right under the clavical
third branch off the aortic arch
what are the branches off the aortic arch?
2.) left common carotid
3.) left subclavian
what is the tissue that holds the aortic arch in place?
when you're developing as an embrio or fetus, you're using mom's heart to pump your blood. what is the tube that does that?
the vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the aorta is called
the ductus arteriosum
what is the iliac arterie?
the iliac artery is where the descending aorta terminates
where does the descending aorta terminate to?
the inferior vena cava forms from what?
the iliac veins
what branch supplies the kidney?
what supplies the spleen?
what supplies the stomach?
the intestinal branch supplies where
the tissue that holds the intestine in it's form is called