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Veterinary Radiology > Cardiovascular > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular Deck (75)
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1

What is located more cranial - the pulmonary valve or the aortic valve?

The pulmonary valve

2

Normal dog size:

Lateral:

  • 70% height
  • 2.5-3.5 rib spaces

VD:

  • 60-65% thoracic width

3

In the clock analogy where does the aorta live?

11-1 o'clock

4

In the clock analogy where does the PA live?

1-2 o'clock

5

In the clock analogy where does the left auricle live?

2-3 o'clock

6

In the clock analogy where does the left ventricle live?

2-6 o'clock (dog) 3-6 o'clock (cat)

7

In the clock analogy where does the right ventricle live?

6-9 o'clock

8

In the clock analogy where does the right atrium live?

9-11 o'clock

9

Describe the cardiovascular structures using the "clock analogy" in lateral recumberncy. 

10

Describe the cardiovascular structures using the "clokc analogy" in DV/VD position. 

11

Selective angiography - right atrial injection (normmal dog) 

RAA = right auricular appendage

RV = right ventricle

PSV = pulmonary sinus of valsalva

MPA = main pulmonary artery 

RPA = right pulmonary artery 

LPA = left pulmonary artery 

12

Selective angiography - right atrial injection (normal dog) 

6 seconds after injection 

PV = pulmonary veins

LA = left atrium 

LV = left venrticle

AA = ascending aorta 

BT = brachipocephalic trunk 

LSA = left subclavian artery 

 

13

What are some differentials for aortic arch enlatrgement?

Cats (age related)

PDA = patent ductus arteriosus 

Subaortic stenosis = post-stenotic dilation 

Aortic aneurism (rare)

14

What are some differentials for caudal vena enlargement?

R-CHF

Caval syndrom (Dilofilaria)

Obstruction of CVC or RA = blood clot of mass

Artifactual = respiratory or cardiac cycle 

15

What are some differentials for MPA dilation?

Post-stenotic dilation = pulmonic stenosis 

Pulmonary hypertension 

PTE

HW dz

Left to Right shunt = PDA, VSD, ASD

16

What are some differentials of pulmonary venous enlargement? 

L-CHF

Left atrial obstruction 

Fluid overload

Left to Right shunts (PDA, ASD, VSD)

 

17

What are some differentials for small pulmonary vessels? 

Dehydration/hypovolemia

Addison's dz

Right to Left shunt (shunt reversal)

Pulmonic stenosis 

PTE

Decreased CO (pericaridial effusion, restrictive pericarditis, R-CHF)

18

What are radiographic signs of a PDA?

19

What are radiographic signs of Pulmonic Stenosis (PS)?

20

What are radiographic signs of Subaortic Stenosis (SAS)?

21

What are radiographic findings of VSD? 

-Depends on the severity 

22

Describe the blood flow of a VSD

23

Cranial vena caval injection angiogram (dog)

 

What are the pertinent findings and diagnosis? 

24

Right atrial injection angiocardiogram (dog). 

 

What are the pertinent findings and diagnosis?

25

Right ventricular injection angiogram (dog). 

 

What are the pertinent findings and diagnosis?

26

Aortic injection angiogram in a normal dog. 

Coronary anatomy. 

27

Describe the different variations of cardiac positions

on the DV/VD projection. 

  1. Levocardia - location of the heart in the left side of the thorax, the apex pointing towards the left

  2. Levoposition - displacement towards the left
    Situs inversus - the thoracic and abdominal viscera are reversed (Le. a mirror image of the normal arrangement) snus solnus - the thoracic and abdominal viscera are in a normal location

  3. Dextrocardia - location of the heart in the right side of the thorax, the apex pointing towards the right. The cardiac chambers are reversed

  4. Dextroposition - displacement towards the right

  5. Dextroversion - version (tuming) to the right. In terms of the heart, dextroversion means the location of the heart in the right thorax, the LV lying in the correct posnion on the left but lying cranial to the RV

***There is some controversy over the exact definnions but those listed above are most commonly accepted.

28

Normal left-sided angiogram  in a 5 year old Golden Retriever 

The catheter has been placed into the LV via the femoral artery and aorta ready for the contrast medium injection.

Positive contrast medium outlines the:

  • Left ventricle (LV)
  • Aortic valve (arrowed)
  • Ascending aorta (Ao)
  • Brachiocephalic trunk (B)
  • Left subclavian artery (S)

29

Normal right-sided angiocardiogram of the dog

The catheter has been placed into the RV via the CdVC ready for the contrast medium injection.

  • (b) Positive contrast medium is present within the RV and has started to enter the RVOT and main pulmonary artery (MPA).
  • (c) The contrast medium has now reached the left and right pulmonary artery branches (arrowed) and the smaller pulmonary arterial branches In the lungs

30

Locatin of the cardiac chambers on thoracic

radiographs of a dog

(a) Lateral view.
(b) Ventral view.

  • Ao =Aortic arch
  • BR =Brachiocephalic trunk
  • CdVC =Caudal vena cava
  • CrVC =Cranial vena cava
  • IT = Internal thoracic arteries and veins
  • LA = Left atrium
  • LAu = Left auricular appendage
  • LPA = Left pulmonary artery
  • LS = Left subclavian artery
  • LV = Left ventricle
  • MPA = Main pulmonary artery
  • RA = Right atrium
  • RAu =Right auricular appendage
  • RPA =Right pulmonary artery
  • RV = Right ventricle