Flashcards in Cardiovascular and Blood Deck (184):
how many types of capillaries do you have?
what is the most common type of capillary?
explain what continuous capillaries are?
the plasma membranes are a tight fit
what is the function of capillaries?
allows for diffusion, which we call exchange
what is the structure of capillaries?
1 layer thick of squamous epithelium
where is the only place that diffusion to occur?
if you want diffusion to occur quickly, what do you do?
take the continuous plasma membranes and seperate them a little bit, making them discontinuous
what are discontinuous capillaries?
they are capillaries that are seperated a little bit.
how many types of discontinuous capillaries are there?
describe fenestrated discontinuous capillaries
they have little holes. the holes are little enough to where cells can not come out, but plasma membrane can.
where can you find fenestrated discontinuous capillaries?
in the kidneys
what is important that fenestrated discontinuous capillaries do?
they hold back large stuff like blood cells and proteins
where did you see sinusoid discontinuous capillaries?
in the lymph nodes/tissue, the spleen, myloid tissue bc we have hemopoiesis going on there
what does sinusoid discontinuous capillaries mean?
that there are big holes. the holes are so big that the cells can come out.
how can you tell the difference on where you want to find fenestrated and sinusoid capillaries?
determine it on where you want cells to come out
in the circulatory system, what kind of capillaries is there most of?
describe when you would want continuous capillaries to become discontinuous capillaries
times when you have invaders in, and you have to let certain white blood cells out to go and kill it
what is the process of diapedesis?
the process of continuous capillaries becoming discontinuous so a certain cell can come out
what is a common example of diapedesis?
when you are allergic to something, certain white blood cells (basophil) in your blood detects antigens in your system and releases a protein called histamine. histamine triggers diapedesis. because the capillaries become discontinuous, monocytes are able to come out.
when diapedesis occurs, monocytes become interstitial and transforms into what?
what is a macrophage
a monocyte out of the circulatory system. it is then triggered to start eating anything that isn't "nonself" (anything that isn't you)
the normal white blood cell that does the phagocytic stuff is called what?
a neutrophil; the most common white blood cell
when you slit your arm, and get some bacteria in it, what does your body do as a reaction?
undergoes diapedesis so that macrophages can be released to eat the antigens
what is released by the basophil to trigger diapedesis?
when the holes are big in the capillaries, what else comes out besides cells?
plasma, which causes edema, which makes your joints hurt
even though our body is doing what it is supposed to during an allergic reaction, we don't like the feeling. because of this, what do we do?
we take an antihistamine to neutralize the histamine so we don't experience diapedesis
what is the process of angiogenesis?
making of blood tissue
when are times that your body needs to undergo angiogenesis?
when we are growing or working out, more blood vessels are being made
T/F : Blood vessels are tissue?
T : therefore they are made of blood cells that have to have nutrients to take away waste
where do blood vessels get their blood supply?
what is the function of vasa verosum?
blood supply that goes and feeds the blood vessels
the blood vessel itself, whether it's an artery or veins, how many layers does it have?
3 tunics (layers)
what are the three tunics of a blood vessel
what do we call the outside, protective layer of the blood vessel?
what do we call the middle, smooth muscle layer of the blood vessel
what kind of tissue is the inside, tunica interna layer of the blood vessel
simple squamous epithelium
what kind of tissue is tunica externa?
elastic tissue, which has elastic fibers and collagen
when they take a blood vessel from your leg for bypass surgery, does all of a sudden you can't get the blood back from your lower leg?
no, because of anastomoses
what does it mean when an area is anastomoses?
it means you have more then one blood supply to that area
the radial artery and the ulnar artery both supply the palmar arch. what is this an example of?
what do we call electricity?
ECG/EKG graphs explain what?
the amount of electricity going through the heart over time
what is the data line in the EKG graph called?
the PQRST wave
whenever there is a change in the data line, what do we call it?
what is a difference that we notice between the P and the T in the PQRST wave?
that there is more electricity in the T
what do we notice about the QRS portion of the PQRST wave?
they have a lot of electricity
what does the P represent in the PQRST wave?
it represents atrial depolarization
when electricty is going through it, we say it is
what does atrial depolarization represent?
the 20% that the atria pumps into the ventricle
is there any electricity going on in atrial depolarization?
nope, it's just pressure going into the ventricle
what does the QRS represent in the PQRST wave?
what is the ventricle depolarization in percent?
what does the T represent in the PQRST wave?
after depolarization, what do we have to do to the neuron to get it ready for the next impulse?
we have to go through repolarization to get the neuron back to where it was
when we depolarize, what goes inside the neuron?
sodium goes through the plasma membrane and protein gates
when the neuron repolarizes, what comes out?
how does your nervous system work?
send impulse to brain, sodium rushes in, muscle contracts, repolarizes, and then we have to switch the two using sodium-potassium pumps (active transport)
explain the process of an ECG/EKG wave
where does atrial repolarization occur?
between Q and R and between R and S
what are the components of the heart beat?
systole and diastole
when we talk about the heart contracting and relaxing, what mechanics of the heart are we talking about?
the ventricles contracting and relaxing
the term for contracted phase of the heartbeat is
what is happening during the diastole phase of the heartbeat cycle?
relaxing, repolarization, and blood is filling up chambers
when the pump is constricted, what phase is the heart in?
when the pump is relaxed and filling up with blood, what phase is the heart in?
when we see 120/80, what are we seeing?
we are checking the arterial pressure and trying to get it the closest to the heart that you can
why do we take blood pressure from the left heart?
because the aortic arch goes that way and you're trying to get the closest to the heart that you can
term for people suffering from high blood pressure
what are a cluster of dendrites called?
what node is in chamber 1
the SA node
what does SA node stand for?
the sinoatrial node
what is the function of the sinoatrial node?
it is the "pacemaker" of the heart; controls the heartbeat
ex: the light switch controls all the lights
what are some characteristics of the SA node?
auto-rhythmic and under the influence of hormones
what does the sinoatrial node go to?
the AV node
what does the AV node stand for?
the atrial ventricular node
what is the function of the AV node?
it is a cluster of neurons (dendrites) that connects the SA node to bundle of HIS
where is the bundle of HIS located?
between the atria
where does the blood go after it reaches the bundle of HIS?
travels down to the apex through interseptal fibers
when it gets down to the apex it spreads out and goes where?
to the perkinje fibers
where are the perkinje fibers located?
the bottoms of chamber 2 and 4
what do the perkinje fibers do?
they are the fibers that depolarize. they open up the gates and sodium rushes in
how does blood get back to the SA node?
through a little bit of perkinje fiber
when someone's heart rate is slow (under 60), what condition do they have?
when someone has a heart beat over 100, what condition do they have?
what does it mean when someone's heart rate is at a flutter?
their heart rate is over 200.
when someone's heart beat is at a flutter, what is wrong with their heart?
their heart is beating so fast that the chambers can't fill up with blood
when someone's heart is fibrilating, what is happeneing?
not beating, it's flopping like a fish out of water
what's the function of blood?
transport (nutrients and waste)
store nutrients (glucose)
protection (blood clot, white blood cells)
what is the process of hemopoiesis?
making of blood in the myloid tissue
what happens in erythropoiesis?
making of red blood cells
what is process of making white blood cells called?
where does the making of blood occur?
bone marrow/myloid tissue
what are the components of blood?
formed elements & plasma
what percentage of formed elements makes up blood?
what percentage of blood does plasma make up?
what happens if you take water out of blood?
it reduces the body of blood, therefore reduces blood pressure
how much of plasma is water?
how much of plasma is protein?
what is the only thing that can be absorbed by the lymphatic portal system?
what is the protein in your blood used for?
clotting, structure, immunity
what are the 4 main proteins that make up the 7% of protein in the blood?
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and pathrombin
what is the #1 protein in the blood?
what protein do we use to make hemoglobin?
what proteins do we use for clotting?
fibrinogen and pathrombin
what percentage of plasma does minerals make up?
what does formed elements seperate into?
red blood cells, white blood cells, and plateletts
red bloods cells (RBC)
what is the buffy coat?
white blood cells and platelets
what are thrombocytes?
platelets; they are part of the buffy coat
what is the shape of blood cells?
blood cells are biconcave
in order for the cell to transport oxygen, what must be present?
what enzyme must be present in order for the cell to transport oxygen?
where is hemoglobin found?
in the phospholipid bilayer
if you don't have hemoglobin, what happens to the transport of oxygen?
you can't trasnport oxygen without hemoglobin
why are blood cells biconcave?
because it gives off the most surface area, and the surface area is where the hemoglobin molecule is
what is the difference between a coenzyme, a cofactor, and a straight enzyme is?
an enzyme is straight protein. a coenzyme is organic molecules and proteins. a cofactor is inorganic molecules and proteins.
what is an enzyme made of?
where does modification of a protein happen?
in the golgi
if we add organic molecules (vitamins) to a protein, what do we consider it?
if we add inorganic molecule to protein, what does it turn into?
what is the MOST COMMON organic molecule in our body?
what is hemoglobin? a conezyme, a cofactor, or an enzyme?
it is a cofactor because iron is inorganic
when we add oxygen to hemoglobin in the lungs, what is it called?
when you breath in oxygen, what does it attach to?
the hemoglobin portion of the red blood cell
when we breath, what does carbon dioxide do?
20% of carbon dioxide attaches to hemoglobin molecule
10% is transported to CO2 in plasma
70% transported on bicarbonate ion molecule
20% of CO2 attaches to the hemoglobin molecule and creates what?
what is a bicarbonate ion molecule?
it is a buffer; unique molecule that can absorb changes in pH
what does pH mean?
simplistically, it means parts hydrogen
the more hydrogen you have, what does that make the solution?
two things will change proteins, what are they?
temperature and pH
what is the normal pH of blood?
7.2 - 7.4
7.35 is in the middle
if you get outside of the pH window, what happens to proteins?
they start changing 3D shape and can't do what they're supposed to do
a buffer is in your blood. what does it do?
absorbs changes in pH
what is the definition of a buffer?
buffers absorb changes in pH
what is carbondioxide: neutral, acid, base?
what is the biggest thing that bicarbonate ions absorb?
where are blood cells broken down at?
why do we break down blood cells?
because we can only recycle blood so much
what does the phospholid break down and the hem- (iron) break down and put it together, what does it create?
bile; and that is how we get rid of old recycled material through digestive system
besides going through the digestive system, what else can we do with bile?
where does phagocytosis happen?
happens in blood marrow and liver
where do you get bilirubin from?
the breakdown of red blood cells
iron in solution is called what?
bilirubin plus phospholipid makes
what is globin?
some of it we can recycle
what is anemia?
lack of red blood cells
pernicious anemia is when
you have the inability to have the right amino acids
what is it called when you have too much red blood cells?
circulating in your blood, what do you have?
when your closed circulatory system becomes open, what leaks out into the blood supply
what does factor x do when it leaks out?
it causes a chain reaction
factor x plus prothrombin makes what
prothrombin and fibrinogen are like monocytes in what way?
they don't have the ability to do anything but we want the in the circulatory system incase it becomes open
thrombin plus fibrinogen
where do we see fibrin?
in blood clots
as the blood is squirting out, what does it start to form?
what is the process of making fibrin?
factor x mixes with prothrombin to make thrombin. thrombin mixes with fibrinogen to make fibrin
what does fibrin, platelets, and fibrinocytes start to form?
what is a scab on a blood vessel called?
when would you expect thrombosis to happen a lot?
what is an embolism?
a thrombosis that's moving
why you don't move a lot after surgery
what prevents thrombin to becoming prothrombin?
pH below 7
pH above 7
how does neutrophils get rid of foreign objects in the body
how does an antigen-antibody complex work?
when a white blood cell sees something that's not supposed to be in the body, it creates a protein through it's genetic code. we call it an antibody and secrets it by exocytosis. and when it sees something that's not supposed to be there, it covers it. then it can be removed by kidneys or is devoured by other white blood cells.
what white blood cell performs the antigen-antibody complex?
what do lymphocytes form?
what are the blood types?
A B O
what are A B and O
they are antigens
does O have an antigen in it?
what is the universal donor?
What is the universal recepient?