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Flashcards in Cardiovascular and Blood Deck (184):
1

how many types of capillaries do you have?

3

2

what is the most common type of capillary?

continous capillaries

3

explain what continuous capillaries are?

the plasma membranes are a tight fit

4

what is the function of capillaries?

allows for diffusion, which we call exchange

5

what is the structure of capillaries?

1 layer thick of squamous epithelium

6

where is the only place that diffusion to occur?

capillaries

7

if you want diffusion to occur quickly, what do you do?

take the continuous plasma membranes and seperate them a little bit, making them discontinuous

8

what are discontinuous capillaries?

they are capillaries that are seperated a little bit.

9

how many types of discontinuous capillaries are there?

2 kinds

fenestrated
sinusoid

10

describe fenestrated discontinuous capillaries

they have little holes. the holes are little enough to where cells can not come out, but plasma membrane can.

11

where can you find fenestrated discontinuous capillaries?

in the kidneys

12

what is important that fenestrated discontinuous capillaries do?

they hold back large stuff like blood cells and proteins

13

where did you see sinusoid discontinuous capillaries?

in the lymph nodes/tissue, the spleen, myloid tissue bc we have hemopoiesis going on there

14

what does sinusoid discontinuous capillaries mean?

that there are big holes. the holes are so big that the cells can come out.

15

how can you tell the difference on where you want to find fenestrated and sinusoid capillaries?

determine it on where you want cells to come out

16

in the circulatory system, what kind of capillaries is there most of?

continuous

17

describe when you would want continuous capillaries to become discontinuous capillaries

times when you have invaders in, and you have to let certain white blood cells out to go and kill it

18

what is the process of diapedesis?

the process of continuous capillaries becoming discontinuous so a certain cell can come out

19

what is a common example of diapedesis?

when you are allergic to something, certain white blood cells (basophil) in your blood detects antigens in your system and releases a protein called histamine. histamine triggers diapedesis. because the capillaries become discontinuous, monocytes are able to come out.

20

when diapedesis occurs, monocytes become interstitial and transforms into what?

a macrophage

21

what is a macrophage

a monocyte out of the circulatory system. it is then triggered to start eating anything that isn't "nonself" (anything that isn't you)

22

the normal white blood cell that does the phagocytic stuff is called what?

a neutrophil; the most common white blood cell

23

when you slit your arm, and get some bacteria in it, what does your body do as a reaction?

undergoes diapedesis so that macrophages can be released to eat the antigens

24

what is released by the basophil to trigger diapedesis?

histamine

25

when the holes are big in the capillaries, what else comes out besides cells?

plasma, which causes edema, which makes your joints hurt

26

even though our body is doing what it is supposed to during an allergic reaction, we don't like the feeling. because of this, what do we do?

we take an antihistamine to neutralize the histamine so we don't experience diapedesis

27

what's angio-

blood vessel

28

-genesis

making

29

what is the process of angiogenesis?

making of blood tissue

30

when are times that your body needs to undergo angiogenesis?

when we are growing or working out, more blood vessels are being made

31

T/F : Blood vessels are tissue?

T : therefore they are made of blood cells that have to have nutrients to take away waste

32

where do blood vessels get their blood supply?

vasa versorum

33

what is the function of vasa verosum?

blood supply that goes and feeds the blood vessels

34

the blood vessel itself, whether it's an artery or veins, how many layers does it have?

3 tunics (layers)

35

what are the three tunics of a blood vessel

tunica externa
tunica media
tunica interna

36

what do we call the outside, protective layer of the blood vessel?

tunica externa

37

what do we call the middle, smooth muscle layer of the blood vessel

tunica media

38

what kind of tissue is the inside, tunica interna layer of the blood vessel

simple squamous epithelium

39

what kind of tissue is tunica externa?

elastic tissue, which has elastic fibers and collagen

40

when they take a blood vessel from your leg for bypass surgery, does all of a sudden you can't get the blood back from your lower leg?

no, because of anastomoses

41

what does it mean when an area is anastomoses?

it means you have more then one blood supply to that area

42

the radial artery and the ulnar artery both supply the palmar arch. what is this an example of?

anastomoses

43

what do we call electricity?

depolarization

44

ECG/EKG graphs explain what?

the amount of electricity going through the heart over time

45

what is the data line in the EKG graph called?

the PQRST wave

46

whenever there is a change in the data line, what do we call it?

a wave

47

what is a difference that we notice between the P and the T in the PQRST wave?

that there is more electricity in the T

48

what do we notice about the QRS portion of the PQRST wave?

they have a lot of electricity

49

what does the P represent in the PQRST wave?

it represents atrial depolarization

50

when electricty is going through it, we say it is

depolarizing

51

what does atrial depolarization represent?

the 20% that the atria pumps into the ventricle

52

is there any electricity going on in atrial depolarization?

nope, it's just pressure going into the ventricle

53

what does the QRS represent in the PQRST wave?

ventricle depolarization

54

what is the ventricle depolarization in percent?

100%

55

what does the T represent in the PQRST wave?

ventrical REPOLARIZATION

56

after depolarization, what do we have to do to the neuron to get it ready for the next impulse?

we have to go through repolarization to get the neuron back to where it was

57

when we depolarize, what goes inside the neuron?

sodium goes through the plasma membrane and protein gates

58

when the neuron repolarizes, what comes out?

potassium

59

how does your nervous system work?

send impulse to brain, sodium rushes in, muscle contracts, repolarizes, and then we have to switch the two using sodium-potassium pumps (active transport)

60

explain the process of an ECG/EKG wave

atrial depolarization
ventricle depolarization
ventricle repolarization

61

where does atrial repolarization occur?

between Q and R and between R and S

62

what are the components of the heart beat?

systole and diastole

63

when we talk about the heart contracting and relaxing, what mechanics of the heart are we talking about?

the ventricles contracting and relaxing

64

the term for contracted phase of the heartbeat is

systole

65

what is happening during the diastole phase of the heartbeat cycle?

relaxing, repolarization, and blood is filling up chambers

66

when the pump is constricted, what phase is the heart in?

systolic phase

67

when the pump is relaxed and filling up with blood, what phase is the heart in?

diastolic phase

68

when we see 120/80, what are we seeing?

we are checking the arterial pressure and trying to get it the closest to the heart that you can

69

why do we take blood pressure from the left heart?

because the aortic arch goes that way and you're trying to get the closest to the heart that you can

70

term for people suffering from high blood pressure

hypertension

71

what are a cluster of dendrites called?

a node

72

what node is in chamber 1

the SA node

73

what does SA node stand for?

the sinoatrial node

74

what is the function of the sinoatrial node?

it is the "pacemaker" of the heart; controls the heartbeat

ex: the light switch controls all the lights

75

what are some characteristics of the SA node?

auto-rhythmic and under the influence of hormones

76

what does the sinoatrial node go to?

the AV node

77

what does the AV node stand for?

the atrial ventricular node

78

what is the function of the AV node?

it is a cluster of neurons (dendrites) that connects the SA node to bundle of HIS

79

where is the bundle of HIS located?

between the atria

80

where does the blood go after it reaches the bundle of HIS?

travels down to the apex through interseptal fibers

81

when it gets down to the apex it spreads out and goes where?

to the perkinje fibers

82

where are the perkinje fibers located?

the bottoms of chamber 2 and 4

83

what do the perkinje fibers do?

they are the fibers that depolarize. they open up the gates and sodium rushes in

84

how does blood get back to the SA node?

through a little bit of perkinje fiber

85

when someone's heart rate is slow (under 60), what condition do they have?

bradycardia

86

when someone has a heart beat over 100, what condition do they have?

tachycardia

87

what does it mean when someone's heart rate is at a flutter?

their heart rate is over 200.

88

when someone's heart beat is at a flutter, what is wrong with their heart?

their heart is beating so fast that the chambers can't fill up with blood

89

when someone's heart is fibrilating, what is happeneing?

not beating, it's flopping like a fish out of water

90

what's the function of blood?

transport (nutrients and waste)
regulate temperature
store nutrients (glucose)
protection (blood clot, white blood cells)

91

what is the process of hemopoiesis?

making of blood in the myloid tissue

92

what happens in erythropoiesis?

making of red blood cells

93

what is process of making white blood cells called?

leukopoiesis

94

where does the making of blood occur?

bone marrow/myloid tissue

95

what are the components of blood?

formed elements & plasma

96

what percentage of formed elements makes up blood?

45%

97

what percentage of blood does plasma make up?

55%

98

what happens if you take water out of blood?

it reduces the body of blood, therefore reduces blood pressure

99

how much of plasma is water?

92%

100

how much of plasma is protein?

7%

101

what is the only thing that can be absorbed by the lymphatic portal system?

amino acids

102

what is the protein in your blood used for?

clotting, structure, immunity

103

what are the 4 main proteins that make up the 7% of protein in the blood?

albumin, globulin, fibrinogen and pathrombin

104

what is the #1 protein in the blood?

albumin

105

what protein do we use to make hemoglobin?

globulin

106

what proteins do we use for clotting?

fibrinogen and pathrombin

107

what percentage of plasma does minerals make up?

1%

108

what does formed elements seperate into?

red blood cells, white blood cells, and plateletts

109

hematocrit

red bloods cells (RBC)

110

what is the buffy coat?

white blood cells and platelets

111

what are thrombocytes?

platelets; they are part of the buffy coat

112

what is the shape of blood cells?

blood cells are biconcave

113

in order for the cell to transport oxygen, what must be present?

an enzyme

114

what enzyme must be present in order for the cell to transport oxygen?

hemoglobin

115

where is hemoglobin found?

in the phospholipid bilayer

116

if you don't have hemoglobin, what happens to the transport of oxygen?

you can't trasnport oxygen without hemoglobin

117

why are blood cells biconcave?

because it gives off the most surface area, and the surface area is where the hemoglobin molecule is

118

hem-

iron

119

-globin

protein

120

what is the difference between a coenzyme, a cofactor, and a straight enzyme is?

an enzyme is straight protein. a coenzyme is organic molecules and proteins. a cofactor is inorganic molecules and proteins.

121

what is an enzyme made of?

straight protein

122

where does modification of a protein happen?

in the golgi

123

if we add organic molecules (vitamins) to a protein, what do we consider it?

a coenzyme

124

if we add inorganic molecule to protein, what does it turn into?

a cofactor

125

what is the MOST COMMON organic molecule in our body?

vitamins

126

what is hemoglobin? a conezyme, a cofactor, or an enzyme?

it is a cofactor because iron is inorganic

127

when we add oxygen to hemoglobin in the lungs, what is it called?

oxyhemoglobin

128

when you breath in oxygen, what does it attach to?

the hemoglobin portion of the red blood cell

129

when we breath, what does carbon dioxide do?

70/20/10
20% of carbon dioxide attaches to hemoglobin molecule
10% is transported to CO2 in plasma
70% transported on bicarbonate ion molecule

130

20% of CO2 attaches to the hemoglobin molecule and creates what?

carbomenohemobloin

131

what is a bicarbonate ion molecule?

it is a buffer; unique molecule that can absorb changes in pH

132

what does pH mean?

simplistically, it means parts hydrogen

133

the more hydrogen you have, what does that make the solution?

more acidic

134

two things will change proteins, what are they?

temperature and pH

135

what is the normal pH of blood?

7.2 - 7.4

7.35 is in the middle

136

if you get outside of the pH window, what happens to proteins?

they start changing 3D shape and can't do what they're supposed to do

137

a buffer is in your blood. what does it do?

absorbs changes in pH

138

what is the definition of a buffer?

buffers absorb changes in pH

139

what is carbondioxide: neutral, acid, base?

acid

140

what is the biggest thing that bicarbonate ions absorb?

carbondioxide (70%)

141

where are blood cells broken down at?

myloid tissue

mainly liver

142

why do we break down blood cells?

because we can only recycle blood so much

143

what does the phospholid break down and the hem- (iron) break down and put it together, what does it create?

bile; and that is how we get rid of old recycled material through digestive system

144

besides going through the digestive system, what else can we do with bile?

emulsify lipids

145

where does phagocytosis happen?

happens in blood marrow and liver

146

where do you get bilirubin from?

the breakdown of red blood cells

147

iron in solution is called what?

bilirubin

148

bilirubin plus phospholipid makes

bile

149

what is globin?

protein

some of it we can recycle

150

what is anemia?

lack of red blood cells

151

pernicious anemia is when

you have the inability to have the right amino acids

152

what is it called when you have too much red blood cells?

polycythemia

153

circulating in your blood, what do you have?

prothombin
fibrinogen
thrombocytes

154

when your closed circulatory system becomes open, what leaks out into the blood supply

factor x

155

what does factor x do when it leaks out?

it causes a chain reaction

156

factor x plus prothrombin makes what

thrombin

157

prothrombin and fibrinogen are like monocytes in what way?

they don't have the ability to do anything but we want the in the circulatory system incase it becomes open

158

thrombin plus fibrinogen

fibrin

159

where do we see fibrin?

in blood clots

160

as the blood is squirting out, what does it start to form?

fibrin

161

what is the process of making fibrin?

factor x mixes with prothrombin to make thrombin. thrombin mixes with fibrinogen to make fibrin

162

what does fibrin, platelets, and fibrinocytes start to form?

a scab

163

what is a scab on a blood vessel called?

thrombosis

164

when would you expect thrombosis to happen a lot?

surgery

165

what is an embolism?

a thrombosis that's moving

why you don't move a lot after surgery

166

what prevents thrombin to becoming prothrombin?

heparin

167

acidosis

pH below 7

168

alkidosis

pH above 7

169

how does neutrophils get rid of foreign objects in the body

phagocytosis

170

how does an antigen-antibody complex work?

when a white blood cell sees something that's not supposed to be in the body, it creates a protein through it's genetic code. we call it an antibody and secrets it by exocytosis. and when it sees something that's not supposed to be there, it covers it. then it can be removed by kidneys or is devoured by other white blood cells.

171

what white blood cell performs the antigen-antibody complex?

lymphocytes

172

what do lymphocytes form?

antigen-antibody complex

173

what are the blood types?

A B O

174

what are A B and O

they are antigens

175

does O have an antigen in it?

no

176

what is the universal donor?

O

177

What is the universal recepient?

AB

178

Rh Factor

antigen

179

monocyte

macrophage

180

basophil

allergic

181

eosinophil

parasite/allergic

182

lymphocyte

antigen/antibody

183

neutrophil

phagocytosis

184

the coronary sinus leads to the coronary vein and leads back into where?

right atrium