Flashcards in Cardiovascular and Respiratory Deck (33)
Give 7 modifiable risk factors for cvs disease.
Hypertension - over 140/90
Hyperlipidaemia - total cholesterol/HDL over 4.5 and triglycerides over 1.5
Give 5 complications of hypertension
Give as many causes of secondary hypertension as you can.
High renin due to:
High sympathetic - Phaechromocytoma
Low renal perfusion - renal artery stenosis
Low GFR - renal failure
High aldosterone effect - Cushing's and Conn's
How would you treat hypertension?
Young, diabetes, ckd
2. Add Ca channel or diuretic
Or if older or black
1. Ca channel
2. Add diuretic
What would a pacemaker look like on inspection?
Lump around second intercostal space mid clavicular line
What is the name of a scar which runs down the middle of the chest? What might cause it?
Median sternotomy scar
CABG (especially if leg scar)
Valve repair or replacement
How would you listen for aortic stenosis? What would it sound like?
Late systolic murmur
Radiates to carotid.
How would you listen for mitral stenosis? What would it sound like?
Apex with the bell and lean
How would you listen for mitral regurgitation? What would it sound like?
How would you listen for aortic regurgitation? What would it sound like?
Left sternal edge lean forwards and expire
Give 6 important causes of AF.
Ischaemic heart (post MI)
Give two causes of an irregularly irregular pulse and how to differentiate them.
Ventricular ectopic beats
Ventricular ectopic beats will disappear in exercise
Give 3 causes of peripheral cyanosis
Peripheral vascular disease
Give 2 causes of central cyanosis.
Right to left cardiac shunt
Hypoxic lung disease
What might cause an elevated JVP?
Right heart failure
What are the waves of the JVP? What does it mean if they are large?
A - atria contracting. If large complete heart block
V - tricuspid regurgitation
Give four important causes of heart failure.
Pump failure: MI, arrhythmia
High preload: valve regurgitation
High after load: hypertension, valve stenosis
Give some of the stigmata of infective endocarditis.
Give some complications that occur with prosthetic valves.
Warfarin related problems
Give 4 unmodifiable risk factors for cvs disease?
Ethnicity - South Asian
What are the principal cardio-respiratory causes of clubbing?
Interstitial lung disease (inc TB, sarcoidosis)
What does a flapping tremor indicate?
Could be type 2 respiratory failure, renal failure, or hepatic failure
What are the signs of anaemia?
Large smooth tongue - glossitis
What might cause a bounding pulse?
What might cause hyperinflation of the chest?
What might cause a mediastinal shift?
Complete lung collapse (atelectasis)
Big pleural effusion
What might sound dull to percussion? What might sound hyper resonant?
Dull - fibrosis/consolidation
Stony dull - fluid
Hyper resonant - air
What causes consolidation in the lung?
Inflammation and fibrosis
What are the signs of hyperinflation of the chest?
Reduced cricosternal distance
Increased AP diameter
Hyper resonant to percussion