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Flashcards in Cardiovascular Overview Lecture Deck (39):
1

What are the 4 functions of the CV system?




• Distribute dissolved gases and nutrients
• Remove metabolic waste
• Contribute to systemic homeostasis
○ Control temp, O2, pH, nutrient, ionic composition
• Adapt to changes in conditions and metabolic demands

2

What are the general characteristics of the pulmonary circulation?

• Low pressure
• Single pathway between heart and lungs

3

What does it mean for the left and right sides of the heart to be organized in series?

• Right and left sides are organized in SERIES
○ No direct connection between left and right
○ Output of left and right sides of heart must be closely matched

4

What (general) are the characteristics of the "heart as a dual pump" part of the CV organization?

• Left side pumps into systemic circulation
• Right side pumps into pulmonary circulation
• Right and left sides are organized in SERIES
○ No direct connection between left and right
○ Output of left and right sides of heart must be closely matched

5

What are the three "parts" of the overall organization of the CV system?

• Heart as a dual pump
• Pulmonary circulation
• Systemic circulation

6

What are the general characteristics of the systemic circulation?


• Higher pressure (than pulmonary)
• Multiple pathways from heart to different vascular beds
• Primarily arranged in parallel
○ Oxygenated blood vists only one organ system before going to pulmonary
○ Changes in metabolic demand or blood flow in one organ do not significantly affect other organs
○ Blood flow to different organs can be individually varied to match demand
• The major exception being hepatic circulation because of the large intestinal circulation component

7

What are the consequences of the systemic circulation being set up mostly in parallel?

• Oxygenated blood vists only one organ system before going to pulmonary
• Changes in metabolic demand or blood flow in one organ do not significantly affect other organs
• Blood flow to different organs can be individually varied to match demand

8

What are the three major layers of the heart wall?

• Epicardium
○ Outer membrane - connective tissue and fat
• Myocardium
○ Thick muscle layer - cardiac myocytes
• Endocardium
○ Inner membrane - endothelial cells like those in the vessels

9

What is the main physical concern in pericarditis?

• Decreased filling of the heart because the pericardium resisting that filling

10

What are the general characteristics of the pericardium?

• Fluid-filled membranous sac, not connected to walls of the heart
• Stiff and non-compliant
○ Resists sudden distension of chambers
• Inflammation = pericarditis, restricting filling of the heart

11

What are the 4 vessels directly connected to/associated with the heart?



• Vena cavae
○ Superior and inferior, both into the right atrium
• Pulmonary artery
○ Outlet of right ventricle
• Pulmonary vein
○ Inlet into left atrium
• Aorta
○ Outlet of left ventricle

12

Where is the aortic valve placed?

• Aortic valve
○ Between left ventricle and aorta

13

Where is the mitral valve placed?

• Mitral valve
○ Between left atrium and left ventricle

14

Where is the pulmonic valve placed?

• Pulmonic valve
○ Between right ventricle and pulmonary artery

15

Where is the tricuspic valve placed?

• Tricuspic valve
○ Between right atrium and right ventricle

16

What are the 4 valves of the heart?

• Tricuspic valve
○ Between right atrium and right ventricle
• Pulmonic valve
○ Between right ventricle and pulmonary artery
• Mitral valve
○ Between left atrium and left ventricle
• Aortic valve
○ Between left ventricle and aorta

17

What are the atrioventricular valves?


• Between atria and ventricles
• Tricuspid
• Mitral
• Attached to papillary muscles in ventricles by chordae tendinae

18

What are heart valves?

• Thin flaps/cusps of fibrous tissue covered by endothelium
• All located in the same horzontal plane of the heart
• The opening and closing of valves makes heart sounds

19

What are the semilunar valves?

• Pulmonic
• Aortic
• Between ventricles and great arteries

20

What are chordae tendinaea?

• Tendon-like attachments that prevent valves from prolapsing into atria during ventricular contraction

21

What is a general way of describing the cardiac conduction system?

• Specialized cells initiate the heart beat and coordinate contraction by conducting electrical impulses

22

What are the characteristics of the right coronary artery?

• In groove between right atrium and right ventricle
• Primary blood sypply to right atrium and right ventricle
• Also posterior part of left ventricle

23

What are the characteristics of the left main coronary artery?

• Short (1cm)
• Bifurcates to left anterior descending artery and circumflex artery
• Primary blood supply to left atrium and left ventricle

24

Where do the right and left main coronary arteries arise from?

• Root of aorta
• Major coronary arteries course along epicardial surface of heart
• Smaller branches enter myocardium
• Some variation in anatomy between individuals

25

When is the greatest flow through the coronary circulation?

• Diastole because systole squeezes off the vessels
• Less flow with higher heart rate

26

What contraction is the His-Purkinje system most closely associated with?

• Ventricular contraction

27

What is the His-Purkinje system?

• Specialized cells that rapidly conduct depolarization to trigger coordinated ventricular contraction

28

What is the atrioventricular node?

• AV node
• Between atria and ventricles
• Slows conduction to allow atrial contraction to precede ventricular contraction

29

How does the deploarizing impulse from the SA node spread?

• Through atria gap junctions between myocytes
• Not clear wheter there is preferential conduction pathway through atria

30

What is the Sinoatrial (SA) node?

• SA node is in right wall of atrium
• Spontaneously depolarizes to initiate the heart beat
• Intrinsic activity = 100bpm
• Highly regulated by autonomic nervous system and many humoral factors

31

Which has a thicker wall, arterioles or arteries?




• Arterioles, when you consider that they have more area of smooth muscle
• The arterioles are highly innervated by autonomic nerves, circulating hormones, local metabolites and are thus the primary way of regulating flow dynamics throughout the body
• Primary site of regulation fo vascular resistance, via changes in diameter

32

What is the tunica intima?

• Inner layer of artery, lined with vascular endothelium
• Single continuous layer of endothelium
• Regulates blood flow
• Site of atherosclerotic plaque formation

33

What is the tunica media?

• Middle layer of artery wall
• Innervated vascular smooth muscle mostly
• Controles diameter of vessels

34

What is the tunica adventitita?

• Outer layer of artery
• Mostly connective tissue
○ Collagen and elastin

35

What are the three layers of arterial vessel walls?

• Tunica adventitia
• Tunica media
• Tunica intima

36

What are the general characteristics of capillaries?

• Smallest vessels, walss being just the single layer of epithelial cells
• No smooth muscle
• About the size of the RBC (less than 10um)

37

How is blood flow in the capillaries determined?


• Pressure gradient
• Highly regulated by consriction/dilation of arterioles and precapillary sphincters (upstream of capillaries)

38

What is the overal lymph flow (number)?

• 2-4 liters a day
○ Vs 7000 L of blood fluid flow per day

39

What are precapillary sphincters?

• Smooth muscle bands at junction of arteriole and capillary