Cardiovascular: Symptomatic and Diagnostic Terms Flashcards Preview

Med Terms > Cardiovascular: Symptomatic and Diagnostic Terms > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular: Symptomatic and Diagnostic Terms Deck (59):
1

thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of the arterial walls

arteriosclerosis

2

buildup of fatty substances within the walls of arteries

atherosclerosis

3

a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat



atheromatous plaque

4

a stationary blood clot

thrombus

5

a clot (air, fat, foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges

embolus

6

condition of narrowing of a part

stenosis

7

compression of a part

constriction

8

plugging; obstruction or a closing off

occlusion

9

to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel

ischemia

10

lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion, etc.

perfusion deficit

11

to stuff; a localized area of necrosis caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel

infarct

12

chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries `

angina pectoris

13



a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart , the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness

aneurysm

14

a sac-like bulge on one side

saccular aneurysm

15

a spindle-shaped bulge

fusiform aneurysm

16

a split or tear of the vessel wall

dissecting aneurysm

17

to limp; pain in a limb while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply

claudication

18

profuse sweating

diaphoresis

19

an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves

heart murmur

20

subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats

palpitation

21

to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis

vegetation

22

any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat

arrhythmia/dysrhythmia

23

slow heart rate

bradycardia

24

chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation

fibrillation

25

extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular flutter

flutter

26

an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart defined by the location of the block, i.e. AV block

heart block

27

PVC

-premature ventricular contraction
-a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node

28



fast heart rate >100beats/minute

tachycardia

29

ASHD

-arteriosclerotic heart disease -a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to rupture- seen most often in the aged or smokers

30

narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body

coarctation of the aorta

31

PDA

-patent ductus arteriosus
-an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth

32

an anomaly that consists of four defects: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, malposition of the aorta, and right ventricular hypertrophy0 causes blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation so that deoxygenated blood goes into the systemic circulation, resulting in cyanosis

tetralogy of Fallot

33

VSD

-ventricular septal defect
-an opening in the septum separating the ventricles

34

CHF

-congestive heart failure, aka left ventricular failure -failure of the left ventricle to pump and adequate amount of blood to meet the demands of the body, resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in the lungs that may extend to the veins, causing edema in the lower portions of the body

35

a condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs

cor pulmonale/right ventricular failure

36

CAD

-coronary artery disease
-a condition affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium-most often caused by atherosclerosis

37

HTN

-hypertension
-persistently high blood pressure

38

high blood pressure attributed to no single cause, but risks include smoking, obesity, increased salt intake, hypercholesterolemia, and hereditary factors

essential (primary) hypertension

39

high blood pressure caused by the affects of another disease (ie. kidney disease)

secondary hypertension

40

MVP

-mitral valve prolapse
-protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and back flow of blood

41

MI

-myocardial infarction
-heart attack; death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow as a result of an occlusion of a coronary artery- usually caused by atherosclerosis; symptoms include pain in chest or upper body, shortness of breath, diaphoresis, and nausea

42

inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection

myocarditis

43

inflammation of the pericardium

pericarditis

44



inflammation of a vein

phlebitis

45



damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever

rheumatic heart disease

46



inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation

thrombophlebitis

47



abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs

varicose veins

48

DVT

-deep vein thrombosis, formation of a clots in a deep vein in the body, occurring most often in the femoral and iliac veins

49

EKG/ECG

electrocardiogram
- an electrical picture of the heart represented by positive and negative deflections on a graph labeled with letters P,Q,R,S,T corresponding with events of the cardiac cycle

50

MRA

-magnetic resonance angiography
-magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology

51

PET scan for the heart

-positron emission tomography scan of the heart
-use of nuclear isotopes and computed tomography techniques to produce perfusion images and study the cellular metabolism of the heart; can be taken at rest or with stress

52

CABG

-coronary artery bypass
-grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from another part of the body to bypass an occluded coronary artery, restoring circulation to myocardial tissue; the traditional method includes temporary arrest of the heart with circulation of the patient's blood through a heart-lung machine during the procedure- an alternative off-pump approach uses a stabilizer to perform the procedure

53

PTCA

-percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
-a method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter with a balloon attachment, then inflating it to dilate and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium; most often includes placement of a stent

54

NSR

-normal sinus rhythm
-regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated by the SA node

55

ASHD



-arteriosclerotic heart disease
-a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to rupture- seen most often in the aged or smokers

56



a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium or the heart valves

bacterial endocarditis

57

compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart

cardiac tamponade

58

a general term for disease of the heart muscle (e.g. alcoholic cardiomyopathy=damage to the heart muscle caused by excessive drinking)

cardiomyopathy

59

malformations of the heart present at birth

congenital anomaly of the heart