Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (92):
1

What does the heart sit in

Pericardial sac

2

What is the mediastinum

Area in thorax between the lungs
Has heart, aorta, trachea and oesophagus

3

Describe the diaphragm muscle

Circumferential origin with fibers attaching to all walls
Central tendon attached to pericardial sac

4

When the diaphragm moves down what occurs?

Increases vol --> decr pressure --> air flows in

5

When the diaphragm moves up what occurs?

Decreases vol --> increases pressure --> air flows out

6

What are the two layers of pericardium?

Fibrous and serous

7

Where do you feel the apex beat of the heart

5th intercostal space on the left hand side

8

Right chambers lie in front of

Left chambers

9

Atria lie to the LEFT/RIGHT of ventricles?

RIGHT

10

Interatrial septum

wall of tissue that separates the right and left atria of the heart.

It has the fossa ovalis

11

Where is the fossa ovalis found

Right Atrium --> interatrial septum

12

What is the fossa ovalis

depression in the right atrium of the heart, the remnant of a thin fibrous sheet that covered the foramen ovale during fetal development.

13

What did the fossa ovalis used to be

Foramen ovale

14

What did the foramen ovale allow in a foetus

allows blood to pass from the right atrium to the left atrium, bypassing the nonfunctional fetal lungs while the fetus obtains its oxygen from the placenta.

15

patent foramen ovale

unfused fossa ovalis

16

Thickness of Right Atria

THIN --> receiving system

17

Where are ridges found in R.A?

Internal, anterior wall

18

What are the ridges in R.A called?

musculi pectinati

19

What veins does the R.A receive blood from

SVC
IVC
Corony sinus

20

What valves are found in R.A?

Tricuspid valves

21

Where does the SVC drain from?

Head, neck, upper limbs and thorax

22

Where does SVC 'pour' blood into?

R.A

23

What does the corony sinus drain

The heart

24

What does the corony sinus drain into

R.A

25

What does the IVC drain

Everything BELOW thorax

26

Where does the IVC drain into

R.A

27

Do ventricles or atria have thicker walls?

Ventricles since they are pumping

28

Which atria/ventricle has the thickest wall?

Left ventricle

29

What ridges are found in ventricles

Trabeculae carnae

30

Where are the trabeculae carnae found in the right ventricle

EVERYWHERE
except by the pulmonary artery

31

Where does the R.V receive blood from

R.A

32

Where does the R.V pump blood into

Pulm. artery

33

What valves are found in the R.V

Tricuspid A.V
Pulmonary valve

34

What ridges are found in the left atria

NONE - completely smooth

35

Where does the left atria receive blood from

Pulmonary veins

36

What valves are found in the left atria

Mitral

37

Where is the mitral valve found

Between L.A and L.V

38

Where is the tricuspid atrioventricular valve found

b/w R.A and R.V

39

What is the difference between the trabeculae carnae of right and left ventricle

Right ventricle --> 3 papilary muscles with chordae tenderna attached to tricuspid AV
Left ventricle --> TWO papillary muscles with chordae tendernae attached to mitral valve

40

Where does the L.V receive blood from

Left atria --> oxygenated blood

41

Where does the L.V pump blood into

Aorta via aortic valve

42

Describe blood flow starting from deoxygenated blood from the body

Enters the R.A --> tricuspid valve --> R.V --> pulmonary valve --> pulmonary artery --> lungs --> pulmonary veins --> L.A --> Mitral valve --> L.V --> aortic valve --> aorta --> to the body :)

43

Atria or ventricles receive blood?

Atria

44

What is the function of the figure of 8 fibrous skeleton?

1. Attachment of atrial muscle mass and ventricular muscle mass
2. electrically isolates ventricles from atria
3. gives attachment to the tricuspid and mitral valves

45

Which two valves are semilunar valves

Pulmonary valve
Aortic valve

46

How many cusps do the semilunar valves have

three

47

Define node

Small collection of cardiac muscles

48

What are the two heart nodes

Sinoatrial node
Atrioventricular node

49

Where is the sinoatrial node located

Upper wall of the R.A

50

Where is the atrioventricular node located

Bottom of the right atrium

51

Describe electrical pulse

S.A node --> sweeps through muscle --> A.V node --> fibrous skeleton --> bundle of HIS --> LV & R.V

52

Where does the nerve supply of the heart come from

Cardiac plexus at the BOTTOM of the heart

53

What nervous system does the cardiac plexus originate from

BOTH sympathetic and parasympathetic

54

What does the cardiac plexus control

Amount pumped
Rate of pump

55

What is the majory artery of the heart

Corony artery

56

Where is the right and left corony artery placed on the heart?

R --> infront of heart
L --> back of heart

57

What does the right corony artery supply

R. Atria
R. V
S.A and A.V

58

What does the L. corony artery supply

L. A
L. V

59

What does the ascending aorta supply

Heart

60

What does the arch of the aorta supply

Head, neck and upper body

61

What does the descending arota supply

Everything below the diaphragm

62

What is the first branch of the aorta

Corony arteries

63

Feature of corony arteries

FUNCTIONAL end arteries

64

What are the three branches of the aortic arch

L common carotid art
L subclavian art
Brachiosephalic trunk

65

What is the flow of blood in the aorta

Brachiocephalic trunk --> cara --> subclavian

66

Ductus arteriosum

Duct between the pulmonary trunk and underside of the aorta.
It was once open and called ligamentum arteriosum in a baby

67

Ligamentum arteriosum becomes

Ductus arteriosum

68

What are the for descending thoracic aortic branches

Intercostal
Bronchial
Pericardiam
Oesophageal

69

What is the most variable vein system in the human body

Azygous system

70

What does the SCV split into

SVC --> brachiocephalic veins --> IJV & Subclavian veins

71

What does the brachiocephalic veins supply?

Arms and head

72

What does the IJV supply

Head and neck

73

What do the subclavian veins supply

Upper Limb

74

What does IJV stand for

Internal jugular vein

75

What is the difference between the R and L brachiocephalic veins

R = short and vertical
L = long and horizontal because it runs through the midline

76

Difference between coronary sinus and coronary vein

The coronary sinus is the vein into which all the other cardiac veins drain. It then drains into the right atrium. It is carrying deoxygenated blood. The coronary arteries (right and left) come off the aorta and provide oxygenated blood to the heart

77

What are the four valves of the heart

Tricuspid AV
Mitral
Aortic
Pulmonary

78

What forms the right border of the heart

Right Artium

79

What forms the inferior border

Right Ventricle

80

What forms the left border of the heart

Left ventricle

81

What forms the apex of the heart

Left ventricle

82

Functions of the pericardium

Fixes heart in mediastinum and limits its motion
Protection from infections coming from other organs (such as lungs)
Prevents excessive dilation of heart in cases of acute volume overload
Lubrication

83

What are the two systems for gas exchange in the circulation of blood and what are their differences?

Pulmonary circulation -> right heart to lungs --> oxygenate blood
Systemic circulation -> left heart to body --> deliver oxygen

84

What type of artery is the aorta

Elastic artery

85

What does the aorta divide into

Ascending aorta, arch and descending aorta

86

What does the BRANCH of the aorta divide into

Brachiocephalic artery
Left common carotid
Left subclavian arteries

87

How is blood flow maintained in the vena caval system?

There are no valves
SVC has no backflow because of gravity, and blood is 'falling' into the atrium
IVC - ucking pressure of the atrium, the blood flow from the Lower Limbs which increases the pressure in the IVC, and the so-called thoracic pump

88

systole

ventricular contraction

89

diastole

ventricles relax and are re-filled with blood from the atria

90

Is valve opening passive or active? What determines it?

Passive
Pressure differences

91

What are the valves of the heart surrounded by and what does it do

Fibrous Skeleton
supports them and prevents distension during ventricular contraction

92

What is the typical result of a sudden occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery / branch?

complete occlusion of a coronary artery causes death of the area of muscle served by that artery (a myocardial infarct)