Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (18):
Name the general components of the cardiovascular system. Describe the general function of the cardiovascular system. how much blood does an adult have
-Heart, Blood vessels, Blood.
-Functions to carry nutrients, hormones, waste, temperature regulation, fight infection. An adult has 4-6 liters of blood
Name and give the function of the blood formed elements
Thrombocytes clot the blood
-White blood cells
Leukocytes fight infection
-Iron- red protein in RBC
-Carries 4 oxygen molecules
- Lack organelles so these cells are recycled
-Erythropoiesis is the process of making RBCs (specifically) and occurs in the red bone marrow,
-hematopoiesis is the process of making any blood cell- occurs in the bone marrow
-erythropoietin is a hormone made by the kidneys in response to too little blood (oxygen) going to the kidneys and it stimulates erythropoiesis.
-(can be genetic engineered, armstrong EPO)
Compare the color of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
-Oxygenated- bright red
- deoxygenated- dull red/blue
Describe the ABO blood typing system. Which type is considered the universal donor, Universal recipient
-A-blood has A antigens on its surface
-B- blood has B antigens on its surface
-AB- universal recipient- both antigens
-O- universal donor- no antigens
-in the plasma portion of the blood, type A blood has B antibodies circulating; type B blood has A antibodies circulation; Type AB blood couldn't have any antibodies circulating or else you would destroy your own blood
Define Rh factor and erythroblastosis fetalis
-If Rh Factor is present, you are Rh positive.
-If it is absent you are Rh negative.
-If a Rh negative woman gets exposed to Rh positive blood, she will make antibodies against Rh factor because it is foreign to her.
-These circulating antibodies could cross the placenta and attack the blood of her fetus that is Rh positive and kill the fetus. This disease is erythroblastosis fetalis.
Describe the structural and functional features of the different types of granulocytes and agranulocytes
(with the dots) are neutrophils (most common WBC
-eosinophils (red granuals, parasites) and basophils (dark purple dots, contains histamine, inhibits clotting) basically operate as phagocytes.
(with out dots) are
-monocytes (=macrophages) which are powerful phagocytes (chronic infection)
-Lymphocytes which operate in immunity to keep you healthy. (second most common T cells and b cells, immunity specific memory)
Describe the steps in hemostasis include the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways, where are most clotting factors made?
-Clotting factors are made in the liver.
-In hemostasis, first there is vascular constriction to decrease the amount of bleeding. Then platelets attempt to plug the hole. Then, comes coagulation which is extrinsic if there is damage outside of the blood vessel.
-This pathway is a quick pathway starting with the release of
-thromboplastin and finally completing by activating
-prothrombin to thrombin which causes fibrinogen to activate to fibrin.
-This fibrin is responsible for the thick and solid clot that we know as coagulation.
-With intrinsic pathway, there must be internal blood vessel damage and it is a longer pathway.
-It involves the conversion of several clotting factors from an inactive to an active form.
-It ends with the thrombin and fibrin production as described above.
-Lastly, the fibrin threads pull together squeezing out some serum making a dry solid clot in a process called clot retraction.
Name the vitamin important in synthesizing some clotting factors (esp prothrombin)
Explain how clots dissolve
-Plasmin is released by neighboring cells of the blood vessel as they undergo mitosis to repair the injury. This will dissolve away the clot as healing occurs.
Describe the prevention of intravascular clotting
-Blood vessel endothelium is smooth, decreasing chance of spontaneous clotting.
-Heparin (anticoagulant) is released by basophils and an abundant connective tissue cell called a mast cell and this also prevents spontaneous clotting.
Define thrombus, embolism (embolus), and serum
-thrombus- stationary (intravascular) clot, occurs spontaneously
-embolism- floating (thrombus) clot that could lodge and cause stroke
-Serum- plasma minus the clotting factors ^
Explain why hemophaliacs tend to have abnormal clotting
-Abnormal intrinsic coagulation pathway due to genetic lack of Factor VIII.
-Why when we get a transplant, injection is needed to prevent out body from rejecting donor
Name the general components of plasma
-albumin that functions in osmosis to keep water in the bloodstream
-globulins which are proteins that are primarily antibodies (fight infection proteins)
-inactive clotting factors such as fibrinogen