Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (129):
What does the cardiovascular system consist of?
Heart and blood vessels
Largest type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Innermost lining of blood vessels
Smaller branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries
Smallest blood vessel. materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin walls
Blood vessel relationship order
Arteries - arterioles - capillaries - venules - veins
Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. contain valves to prevent blood backflow
structure in veins or heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction
Two largest veins in the body. Superior and inferior aspects return blood to the right atrium of the heart
Artery carrying oxygen poor blood from the heart to the lungs
Vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart
Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
Largest artery in the body
Arteries that supply blood to the head and neck
Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissue
Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells
Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation
Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries
What are the chambers of the heart?
Two upper atrium chambers and two lower ventricle chambers
Explain how the heart is a double pump?
Pump 1: right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to become oxygenated and release it CO2
Pump 2: left side of the heart receives the oxygenated blood and forces it out of to all parts of the body
Vena cava that drains blood from the upper portion of the body
Superior Vena Cava
Vena Cava that carries blood from the lower part of the body
Inferior Vena Cava
Valve located btw the right atrium and ventricle
Valves positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
Valve btw left atrium and ventricle; bicuspid valve
Which is the thickest of all four chambers?
Valve btw left ventricle and aorta
Partition or wall dividing the heart chambers (cavities)
Wall separating the two upper chambers of the heart
Muscular wall that lies btw the two lower chambers of the heart
Inner lining of the heart
Muscular, middle lining of the heart
Double-layered fibrous membranous sac surrounding the heart
What are the two layers of the pericardium?
Visceral pericardium: adheres to the heart
Parietal Pericardium: lines the outer fibrous coat
What are the two phases of the heartbeat
The tricuspid and bicuspid valves open as blood passes from the right and left atria to the ventricles
Tricuspid and mitral valves are closed preventing the flow of blood back into the atria
Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves
Pacemaker of the heart; it's current of electricity causes the walls of the atria to contract and force blood into the ventricles (located in right atrium)
Sinoatrial node (SA)
Specialized tissue located in the interatrial septum.
Atrioventriclar Node (AV)
Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them
Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
record of the electricity flowing through the heart. the electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, and T
Electocardiogram (EKG, ECG)
Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a rate in patients at rest of 60 to 100 beats per minute
Normal sinus rhythm
What is blood pressure
The force that the blood exerts on the arterial walls
Instrument used to measure blood pressure
What is normal BP
120-80 mm Hg
Arter/o or Artri/o
yellowish plaque, fatty substance
Atrium, upper heart chamber
Ven/o or Ven/i
ventricle, lower heart chamber
problems with the conduction or electrical system of the heart
abnormal heart rhythm
Rapid, but regular contractions of the heart, usually of the atria.
Abnomalities in the heart at brith
congenital heart disease
Coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the aorta
Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting with a normal rhythm.
Atrial fibrillation (AF)
Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as skipped beats
AF arrhythmia where irregular heartbeats occur periodically and episodically
AF arrhythmia where irregular heartbeats continue indefinitely
Permanent or Persistent AF
Random, rapid, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the atria or ventricles.
A small duct (passageway) between the aorta and pulmonary artery that is open during fetal circulation, fails to close at birth.
Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)
Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the ventricles
Ventricle Fibrillation (VF)
Brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation).
Pulmonary artey is narrow or obstructed
Pulmonary artery stenosis
Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.
Congestive heart failure
Form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty plaque deposits in the interior lining of an artery.
Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
local deficiency of blood supply produced by vasoconstriction or local obstacles to the arterial flow.
Chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia.
High BP resulting from narrowing of arterioles affecting the heart
Hypertensive heart disease
Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Abnormal closure of the mitral valve so that blood refluxes backward into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.
Mitral Valve prolapse
Extra sound heard between normal beats during auscultation of the heart.
Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart
Weakening and widening of an arterial wall, which may lead to hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
Blood clot forms in a large vein, usually in the lower limb
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis in fingers and toes caused by blood vessel spasms.
Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs. Caused by damage valves that fil to prevent the back flow of blood
Swollen, twisted (varicose) veins in the rectal and anal region.
Consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack).
Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACSs)
Listening for sounds in the chest and abdomen using a stethoscope.
Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias by blocking the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart
Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action, often leading to sudden cardiac death
Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space
Area of dead tissue
Drugs used to treat angina by dilating blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue
Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream
clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves
Echos generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart
Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion
advanced cardiac life support; CPR plus drugs and defibrillation
a-fib or afibrillation
congestive heart failure
deep vein thrombosis
ECG or EKG
shortness of breath
Condition of rapid heartbeat
condition of slow heartbeat
disease condition of heart muscle
condition of deficient oxygen
a narrowing or stricture of a passage or vessel