Cardiovascular System Flashcards Preview

Medical Terminology > Cardiovascular System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System Deck (129):
1

What does the cardiovascular system consist of?

Heart and blood vessels

2

Largest type of blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

Arteries

3

Innermost lining of blood vessels

Endothelium

4

Smaller branches of arteries that carry blood to the capillaries

Arterioles

5

Smallest blood vessel. materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin walls

Capillaries

6

Blood vessel relationship order

Arteries - arterioles - capillaries - venules - veins

7

Thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. contain valves to prevent blood backflow

Veins

8

structure in veins or heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction

Valve

9

Two largest veins in the body. Superior and inferior aspects return blood to the right atrium of the heart

Venae Cavae

10

Artery carrying oxygen poor blood from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary Artery

11

Vein carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart

Pulmonary Vein

12

Flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart

Pulmonary Circulation

13

Largest artery in the body

Aorta

14

Arteries that supply blood to the head and neck

Carotid Arteries

15

Flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissue

Systemic circulation

16

Gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells

Oxygen

17

Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation

Carbon Dioxide

18

Beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries

Pulse

19

What are the chambers of the heart?

Two upper atrium chambers and two lower ventricle chambers

20

Explain how the heart is a double pump?

Pump 1: right side of the heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to become oxygenated and release it CO2

Pump 2: left side of the heart receives the oxygenated blood and forces it out of to all parts of the body

21

Vena cava that drains blood from the upper portion of the body

Superior Vena Cava

22

Vena Cava that carries blood from the lower part of the body

Inferior Vena Cava

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Valve located btw the right atrium and ventricle

Tricuspid valve

24

Valves positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

Pulmonary Valve

25

Valve btw left atrium and ventricle; bicuspid valve

Mitral Valve

26

Which is the thickest of all four chambers?

Left Ventricle

27

Valve btw left ventricle and aorta

Aortic Valve

28

Partition or wall dividing the heart chambers (cavities)

Septum (Septa-plural)

29

Wall separating the two upper chambers of the heart

Interatrial septum

30

Muscular wall that lies btw the two lower chambers of the heart

Interventricular septum

31

Inner lining of the heart

endocardium

32

Muscular, middle lining of the heart

Myocardium

33

Double-layered fibrous membranous sac surrounding the heart

Pericardium

34

What are the two layers of the pericardium?

Visceral pericardium: adheres to the heart
Parietal Pericardium: lines the outer fibrous coat

35

What are the two phases of the heartbeat

Diastole (relaxation)
Systole (contraction)

36

The tricuspid and bicuspid valves open as blood passes from the right and left atria to the ventricles

Diastole

37

Tricuspid and mitral valves are closed preventing the flow of blood back into the atria

Systole

38

Abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves

Murmur

39

Pacemaker of the heart; it's current of electricity causes the walls of the atria to contract and force blood into the ventricles (located in right atrium)

Sinoatrial node (SA)

40

Specialized tissue located in the interatrial septum.

Atrioventriclar Node (AV)

41

Specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them

Atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)

42

record of the electricity flowing through the heart. the electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, and T

Electocardiogram (EKG, ECG)

43

Heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a rate in patients at rest of 60 to 100 beats per minute

Normal sinus rhythm

44

What is blood pressure

The force that the blood exerts on the arterial walls

45

Instrument used to measure blood pressure

sphygomomanometer

46

What is normal BP

120-80 mm Hg

47

angi/o

Vessel

48

Aort/o

Aorta

49

Arter/o or Artri/o

Artery

50

Arther/o

yellowish plaque, fatty substance

51

Atri/o

Atrium, upper heart chamber

52

brachi/o

Arm

53

Cardi/o

heart

54

cyan/o

blue

55

myx/o

mucas

56

ox/o

oxygen

57

corno/o

heart

58

phleb/o

vein

59

sphygm/o

pulse

60

rrhyth,/o

rhythm

61

steth/o

chest

62

thromb/o

clot

63

valvul/o, valv/o

Valve

64

Vas/o

Vessel

65

Ven/o or Ven/i

vein

66

Ventricul/o

ventricle, lower heart chamber

67

Vascul/o

vessel

68

problems with the conduction or electrical system of the heart

arrhythmia

69

slow heartbeat

bradycardia

70

dysarhythmia

abnormal heart rhythm

71

Rapid, but regular contractions of the heart, usually of the atria.

(Atrial) Flutter

72

Abnomalities in the heart at brith

congenital heart disease

73

Coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the aorta

74

Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the atria, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting with a normal rhythm.

Atrial fibrillation (AF)

75

Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as skipped beats

Palpatations

76

AF arrhythmia where irregular heartbeats occur periodically and episodically

Paroxysmal AF

77

AF arrhythmia where irregular heartbeats continue indefinitely

Permanent or Persistent AF

78

Random, rapid, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the atria or ventricles.

Fibrillation

79

A small duct (passageway) between the aorta and pulmonary artery that is open during fetal circulation, fails to close at birth.

Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)

80

Electrical impulses move randomly throughout the ventricles

Ventricle Fibrillation (VF)

81

Brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation).

Defibrillation

82

Pulmonary artey is narrow or obstructed

Pulmonary artery stenosis

83

Heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.

Congestive heart failure

84

Form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty plaque deposits in the interior lining of an artery.

Artherosclerosis

85

Disease of the arteries surrounding the heart

Coronary artery disease (CAD)

86

local deficiency of blood supply produced by vasoconstriction or local obstacles to the arterial flow.

Ischemia

87

Myocardial Infarction

Heart Attack

88

Chest pain associated with myocardial ischemia.

Angina

89

High BP resulting from narrowing of arterioles affecting the heart

Hypertensive heart disease

90

Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart

Endocarditis

91

Abnormal closure of the mitral valve so that blood refluxes backward into the left atrium during ventricular contraction.

Mitral Valve prolapse

92

Extra sound heard between normal beats during auscultation of the heart.

Murmur

93

Inflammation of the membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart

Pericarditis

94

Weakening and widening of an arterial wall, which may lead to hemorrhage and cerebrovascular accident (stroke)

Aneurysm

95

Blood clot forms in a large vein, usually in the lower limb

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

96

High BP

Hypertension

97

Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis in fingers and toes caused by blood vessel spasms.

Raynaud disease

98

Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occurring in the legs. Caused by damage valves that fil to prevent the back flow of blood

Varicose Veins

99

Swollen, twisted (varicose) veins in the rectal and anal region.

Hemorrhoid

100

Consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries; unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACSs)

101

Listening for sounds in the chest and abdomen using a stethoscope.

Ausculation

102

Drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias by blocking the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart

Beta-blockers

103

Sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action, often leading to sudden cardiac death

cardiac arrest

104

Pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space

cardiac tamponade

105

Area of dead tissue

Infarction

106

Drugs used to treat angina by dilating blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue

Nitrates

107

Patent

Open

108

Drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream

statins

109

clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves

Vegetation

110

Echos generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart

ECHO echocardiography

111

Exercise tolerance test (ETT) determines the heart's response to physical exertion

Stress Test

112

ACLS

advanced cardiac life support; CPR plus drugs and defibrillation

113

AF

a-fib or afibrillation

114

BP

blood pressure

115

CHF

congestive heart failure

116

DVT

deep vein thrombosis

117

ECG or EKG

Electrocardiography

118

ECHO

echocardiography

119

HTN

hypertension

120

PE

pulmonary embolus

121

RV

right ventricle

122

SOB

shortness of breath

123

VF

ventricular fibrillation

124

Condition of rapid heartbeat

tachycardia

125

condition of slow heartbeat

bradycardia

126

Cardiomyopathy

disease condition of heart muscle

127

condition of deficient oxygen

hypoxia

128

a narrowing or stricture of a passage or vessel

stenosis

129

pain, tension, and weakness in limb after walking has begun

claudation