Cardiovascular System: The Heart Flashcards Preview

Phar 112 Lec 1st Exam > Cardiovascular System: The Heart > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cardiovascular System: The Heart Deck (95):
1

Scientific study of the normal heart and the diseases associated with it

Cardiology

2

Dimensions of the heart

12 cm long
9 cm wide
6 cm thick

3

T/F
2/3 of the heart's mass lies the left side of the body

T

4

The hearts
Rests on the ________
Near ___________
And lies in __________

Diaphragm
Midline of thoracic cavity
Mediastinum

5

Sac that covers and protects the heart

Pericardium

6

Layers of pericardium

Fibrous (outer)
Serous (inner, thinner, more delicate)

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Prevents overstretching and anchors the heart in the mediastinum

Fibrous pericardium

8

Contains pericardial fluid which reduces friction as the heart moves

Serous pericardium

9

Heart walls

Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

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Visceral layer of the serous pericardium
Adheres toghtly to the surface of the heart

Epicardium

11

Bundles of cardiac muscles responsible for the pumping action of the heart

Myocardium

12

Provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart
Covers the valves of the heart

Endocardium

13

Inflammation of the pericardium

Pericarditis

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Compression of the heart due to fluid or blood builup in the pericardial cavity

Cardiac tamponade

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Draining of the fluid in the pericardial cavity

Pericardiocentesis

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Chambers of the heart

Right atrium
Right ventricle
Left atrium
Left ventricle

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Superior receiving chambers

Atria

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Inferior pumping chambers

Ventricles

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Wrinkled pouchlike structure found in the anterior of each atrium
Increases the capacity of an atrium so it can hold a greater volume of blood

Auricle

20

Marks the external boundary bet 2 chambers of the heart
Consists of blood vessels and fats

Sulcus

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Encircles most of the heart
Marks the external boundary bet the superior atria and inferior ventricles

Coronary sulcus

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Marks the external boundary bet the right and left ventricle on the anterior aspect of the heart

Anterior interventricular sulcus

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Marks the external boundary bet ventricles on the posterior of the heart

Posterior interventricular sulcus

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3 veins from which the right atrium receives blood

Coronary sinus
Superior vena cava
Inferior vena cava

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Difference bet anterior and posterior walls of the right atrium

Posterior - smooth
Anterior - rough; due to the presence of PECTINATE muscles which increases surface area and extends up to the auricle

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Thin partition bet the right and left atrium

Interatrial septum

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Feature of the interatrial septum
Oval depression which is a remnant of FORAMEN OVALE

Fossa ovalis

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Opening in the interatrial septum of a fetal heart that closes soon after birth

Foramen ovale

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Blood passes from the right atrium to the right ventricle through the

Tricuspid valve

30

Components of the heart valves

Dense connective tissue covered by endocardium

31

Other name for tricuspid valve

Right atrioventricular valve

32

Forms most of the anterior surface of the heart

Right ventricle

33

Raised bundles of cardiac muscles which prevent bubble formation

Trabeculae carnae

34

Heart strings which stabilize bulb not to open upward

Cordae tendinae

35

Wall that divides the 2 ventricles

Interventricular septum

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An abnormal opening in the wall bet the 2 ventricles which causes the mixture of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood

Ventricular septal defect

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Allows flow of blood from right ventricle to pulmonary trunk to the lungs

Pulmonary valve

38

Cone-shaped trabeculae carnae

Papillary muscle

39

Forms most of the base of the heart
Receives blood from the lungs through 4 pulmonary veins

Left atrium

40

Blood passes from left atrium to the left venteicle through the

Bicuspid valve / mitral valve / left atrioventricular valve

41

Thickness chamber of the heart
Forms the apex of the heart

Left ventricle

42

Blood passes from the left ventricle into the ascending aorta through the

Aortic valve

43

Like the right ventricle, the left ventricle also has

Trabeculae carnae
Cordae tendinae
Papillary muscles

44

A temporary blood vessel that thaf shunts blood from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta during fetal life.
So only small amount of blood enters the non-functioning fetal lungs.
Closes shortly after birth

Ductus arterious

45

Right ventricle pumps blood at a fairly ______ pressure to the ______

Low
Lungs

46

Left ventricle pumps blood at a ______ pressure to ________

High
All parts of the body

47

Thin leaflets of tissue which open and close at the proper time during each heart beat cycle

Heart valves

48

Main function of the heart valves

Close to prevent backflow of blood

49

Atrioventricular valves

1. Tricuspid/Right AV valve
2. Bicuspid/Mitral/Left AV valve

50

Semilunar valves

1. Pulmonary SL valve
2. Aortic SL valve

51

Narrowing of the heart valve

Stenosis

52

Causes of valve stenosis

Congenital heart defect
Rheumatic fever
Blood clotor tumor

53

Complications of stenosis

Heart failure
Heart enlargement
Lung congestion
Chest pain (angina)

54

Failure of a valve to close completely

Insufficiency/incompetence

55

Example of mitral incompetence

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP)

56

Branch from the ascending aorta and encircle the heart
Supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium

Coronary arteries

57

Drain carbon dioxide and waste products

Coronary veins

58

Large vascular sinus on the posterior surface of the heart which empties into the Right atrium

Coronary sinus

59

The myocardium has its own network of of blood vessels called

Coronary circulation/Cardiac circulation

60

Veins that carry blood into the coronary sinus

1. Great cardiac vein
2. Middle and small cardiac vein

61

Main tributary of the coronary sinus
Drains areas of the heart supplied by the LEFT CORONARY ARTERY

Great cardiac vein

62

Drain most of the heart supplied by the RIGHT CORONARY ARTERY

Middle and Small Cardiac vein

63

Delivers oxygen to all body cells and carries away wastes

Systemic circulation

64

Eliminates CO2 via the lungs and oxygenates the blood

Pulmonary circulation

65

_________ blood pumped to all body tissues via _________

Oxygenated
Aorta

66

_________ blood pumped to lungs via the _________

Deoxygenated
Pulmonary artery

67

An inflammatory disease caused by the infection of STREPTOCOCCUS BACTERIA

Rheumatic fever

68

Examples of streptococcus bacteria

Strep throat
Scarlet fever

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Most often damaged by rheumatic fever

Bicuspid and
Aortic valve

70

An infant born with congenital heart defect which prevents oxygen-rich blood from circulating to the body and gives the infant's skin a bluish tint.

Blue baby

71

Inadequate blood flow to the coronary arteries

Coronary artery disease

72

Types of coronary artery disease

Partial obstruction (angina pectoris and silent myocardial ischemia)
Complete obstruction (myocardial infarction )

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A condition of reduced blood flow to the myocardium

Myocardial ischemia

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Myocardial ischemia can eventually lead to _____________
Irreversible death of myocardial tissue due to prolonged ischemia
Heart attack

Myocardial infarction

75

Strangled chest
Severe pain, usually accompanies myocardial ischemia

Angina pectoris

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CAD treatments

CABG
PTCA
Stent in an Artery

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CABG

Coronary artery bypass grafting

78

PTCA

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

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Surgical procedure in which a blood vessel from another part of the body is attached “grafted” to a coronary artery to bypass an area of blockade

CABG

80

Non-surgical procedure, in which a balloon catheter with un-inflated balloon is threaded to obstructed area in artery.

PTCA

81

A stainless steel device resembling a spring coil

Stent

82

To correct the renarrowing from PTCA

Stent an a coronary artery

83

Conduction system of the heart is also known as ____________
And is composed of
_____________

Nodal system
Auto rhythmic fibers

84

Acts as pace maker and
Forms the cardiac conduction system

Auto-rhythmic fibers

85

Components of the Cardiac conduction system

Sinoatrial node
Atrioventricular node
Bundle of his
Bundle branch (left and right)
Purkinje fibers

86

Natural pacemaker if the heart

Sinoatrial node

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Only site where action potentials can conduct from the atria to the ventricles

Bundle of his

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Heart rate exceeds normal resting rate
Over 100 beats/min

Tachycardia

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Abnormally slow heart rate action
Below 50 beats/min

Bradycardia

90

Phases of cardiac Action potential

Phase 0 - Rapid depolarization
Phase 1 – Early repolarization
Phase 2 - Plateau (Maintained Depolarization)
Phase 3 - Repolarization
Phase 4 - Refractory Period/Resting Membrane Potential

91

Opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels

Phase 0 – rapid depolarization

92

Inactivation of fast Na+ channels
Opening of K+ Channels

Phase 1 – early repolarization

93

Opening of voltage-gated slow Ca2+ channels and Na+ channels (remain open for a long period)
Closing of some K+ channels: Ca++ inflow = K+ outflow

Phase 2 - plateau
Maintained depolarization

94

Opening of voltage-gated K+ channels
Closing of Ca2+ and Na+ channels

Phase 3 - repolarization

95

Time interval when a second contraction cannot be triggered ; tetanus/maintained contraction cannot occur

Phase 4 – refractory period (longer than contraction)