Cartilage Flashcards Preview

Histology > Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cartilage Deck (33):
1

types of cartilage

Hyaline cartilage
Elastic cartilage
Fibrocartilage

2

What are the collagen fibres made of in cartilage

Type II collagen

3

What type of tissue is the perichondrium made of

Dense irregular CT

4

Physical characteristics of hyaline cartilage

pliable (easily bent),
resilient (able to spring back into shape),
resists compression

5

Physical characteristics of elastic cartilage

elastic,
pliable (easily bent),
resilient (able to spring back into shape)

6

Physical characteristics of fibrocartilage

compressive
shearing force (parallel) resistant

7

What are GAG's made of

Aggrecan-hyaluronan aggregates

8

What are the characteristics of GAG's

Strong affinity for water (enables shock absorbing)
Can take pressure loads

9

Where is hyaline cartilage found

Trachea, bonchi
Articular surface of synovial joints
epiphysial disks

10

What makes up 5% of the ECM of hyaline cartilage

Multiadhesive glycoproteins

11

What makes up 9% of the ECM of hyaline cartilage

Proteoglycans (inc GAG's)

12

What makes up 15% of the ECM of hyaline cartilage

Collage Type II

13

What makes up 60-80% of the ECM of hyaline cartilage

Tissue fluid

14

What makes up 3-5% of hyaline cartilage

Chondrocytes

15

Where are chondrocytes found

in lacunae
in singular/isogenous groups

16

Why does the ECM of cartilage stain differently to it's chondrocytes

There is a different concentration of proteoglycans

17

What constitutes the capsular matrix of hyaline cartilage

Ring of more densely staining matrix immediately around the chondrocyte

18

What constitutes the territorial matrix of hyaline cartilage

Surrounds isogenous groups, staining less intensely than the capsular matrix

19

What constitutes the interterritorial matrix of hyaline cartilage

Occupies space between isogenous groups of chondrocytes

20

What are the two layers of perichondrium? What are their characteristics?

Outer fibrous layer (dense irregular CT)
Made up of fibroblasts

Inner cellular layer
Made up of chondroblasts which differentiate into chondrocytes

21

Which types of cartilage have a perichondrium

Elastic Cartilage
Hyaline cartilage (Only when not articular)

22

What are the three "zones" of articular cartilage? What are their characteristics

Superficial zone
Fibres are parallel to surface

Transitional zone
Random arrangement of fibres

Deep zone
Fibres are perpendicular to the surface

23

What is similar to hyaline cartilage when looking at elastic cartilage

Elastic cartilage has a hyaline cartilage ECM, except that it also has elastic fibres

24

Where is elastic cartilage found

Part of epiglottis
Parts of exteranl auditory meatus (ear canal)

25

What is similar between elastic cartilage when compared to fibrocartilage

It is made up of layers of hyaline cartilage and dense CT

26

What is the function of fibrocartilage

Resists deformation under stress

27

What is the location of fibrocartilage

Temporomandibular joint (connects lower jaw to skull)
Intervertebral disks
Menisci

28

What are the two type of cartilage growth? What are characteristic about each of them?

Appositional
--requires perichondrium
--chondroblasts differentiate into chondrocytes

Intersitial
--chondrocytes divide

29

Describe osteoarthritis

Degenerative age-related joint disease
Results from destruction of articular cartilage, often due to calcification of the cartilage

30

Why can cartilage not repair itself easily

avascular
Chondrocytes poorly proliferate

31

What can chondroblasts also be called

Perichondrial cells

32

What are chondroblasts

Mesenchymal progenitor cells, which through endochondral ossification, form chondrocytes

33

What serves as evidence for either appositional or interstitial growth

Appositional: perichondrium
Intersitial: dividing cells