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Flashcards in Cartilage & Bone Deck (162):
1

what are some components of the skeletal system?

bones
cartilage
ligaments
and other supportive connective tissue?

2

are the tissues within the skeletal system dynamic?

yes. bone is constantly growing, being broken down, and remolded

3

what does bone hold?

major storage of calcium and phosphorus

4

what in the skeletal system is constantly being rebuilt

matrix

5

what is the matrix of the skeletal system made of and what is it called?

called hydroxiapetite and it is made of calcium and phosphorus

6

where is cartilage in the body found?

found throughout the entire body

7

how many types of cartilage are there?

3 types

8

what is the difference between cartilage and bone?

cartilage can withstand a lot, bone doesn't

cartilage is not as strong as bone, but it is more flexible

9

what do chondroblasts in cartilage do?

begin to produce extracellular matrix

10

what are chondrocytes

maintain the matrix after the chondroblasts made them

11

what are the small spaces that chondrocytes occupy within the matrix called?

lacunae

chondroblasts and chondrocytes are there

12

mature cartilage is

avascular

13

what are the functions of cartilage?

1.) support of soft tissue

2.) articulations

3.) precursor model for bone growth

14

what are some examples of how cartilage support soft tissue?

in the respiratory tree or the auricle

keeps your passage ways open

15

how does the cartilage act as articulations?

cartilage provides smooth gliding surfaces where bones appose each other in joints

16

how many major types of cartilage are there? what are they?

3

hyaline, fibrocartilage, elastic

17

what is perichondrium

outside tissue of cartilage made of dense connective tissue

18

what types of cartilage have perichondrium

hyaline and elastic

19

what kind of cartilage does not have perichondrium?

fibrocartilage

20

what is the difference between a chondroblasts and a chondrocyte?

when a chondroblasts produces the matrix and it builds up to the point that it needs to be, then it becomes a chondrocyte and just maintains the matrix.

21

where are the chondroblasts and chondrocytes found?

in the lacunae

22

say if you don't need anymore mass, what happens with the chondroblasts and the chondrocytes?

you just go from chondrocyte to chondrocyte

23

where is elastic cartilage found?

ear and larynx

24

where is fibrocartilage found?

interverbratel discs and knee

25

where is hyaline cartilage found?

ribs (costal cartilage)
ends of all the joints (articular cartilage)

26

how is cartilage a precursor for bone growth?

in child birth, sometimes have to break the child's clavicle if their bone has already ossified.

27

what is the most abundant type of cartilage? what is the weakest?

hyaline cartilage is the most abundant and weakest cartilage

28

what does hyaline cartilage look like and where is it found?

respiratory tree, joints of bones

translucent watercolor, very little protein

29

what do proteins give cartilage?

strength

30

what is the strongest type of cartilage?

fibrocartilage

31

because fibrocartilage is the strongest, what does it do?

shock absorber in knee, intervertebral disc and pubic symphises

32

what kind of protein is in the extracellular matrix of fibrocartilage?

thick collagen fibers

33

where is elastic cartilage in the body?

regions of the body needing flexible connective tissue such as the ear and epiglottis (larynx)

34

what kind of protein is in elastic cartilage?

highly branched elastic fiber in extracellular matrix for flexibility

35

how many ways does cartilage grow?

2 ways

interstitial growth and appositional growth

36

does fibrocartilage grow appositionally?

no, it grows from perichondrium

37

what does it mean when cartilage grows interstitially?

grows from within the cartilage itself: grows 3D

38

what is appositional growth?

toward middle, from the outside edges (periphery) inward

39

what happens in interstitial growth?

chondrocytes undergo mytotic division. the two chondrocytes are seperated from eachother by matrix border. the result is two chondrocytes, two lacunae, and more extracellular matrix

40

what is involved in appositional growth

perichondrium and chondroblasts

41

what happens in appositional growth?

stem cells along edge of perichondrium divide into chondroblasts. the chondroblasts begin to produce extracellular matrix and differentiate into chondrocytes and form new lacunae and add to already existing matrix

42

what cartilage grows both appositional and interstitual?

elastic and hyaline

43

which way of cartilage growth goes first?

have to start with appositional growth and then you can go both ways

44

what is the primary tissue in bone?

connective tissue

45

what happens when bone goes through osephication?

you are turning cartilage to bone

46

what happens in the calcification process?

building up hydroxyapetite

47

what separates bone from cartilage from blood?

the type of matrix

48

functions of bones

1.) support and protection
2.) movement
3.) hemopoises
4.) storage of mineral and energy reserves

49

when a bone performs hemopoiesis, what does that mean?

process of making blood

50

where does bone make blood

in red bone tissue/myloid tissue

51

where is all blood cells made?

in myloid tissue

52

what is the blood cell that is made in myloid tissue but matures in lymph nodes?

lymphocytes

53

how many classes of bones are there? what are they?

4
1.) long bones
2.) short bones
3.) flat bones
4.) irregular bones

54

what do long bones look like

greater length than width

ex: femur

55

what do short bones look like?

nearly equal length and width

ex: tarsal bone

56

what do flat bones look like?

flat thin surfaces

ex: frontal bone

57

what do irregular bones look like?

elaborate, complex shapes

ex. vertebra

58

Skeletal System

an organ skeleton

59

the shaft of a long bone is called

a diaphysis

60

what is the epiphysis in the long bone

the head

61

what does metaphysis refer to in a long bone

region in bone b/w diaphysis and epiphysis containing epiphysial (growth) plate

62

where does the epiphysis and diaphysis in a long bone connect?

metaphysis

63

what is the articular cartilage made out of?

hyaline cartilage

64

what is the function of articular cartilage?

reduces friction b/w articulating bones

65

what does the medullary cavity in long bones contain?

yellow bone marrow

66

what does endosteum cover in the long bone

covers most of the internal surface of the bone

67

what goes around the bone that the tendons attach to?

periosteum

68

periosteum

what the tendons in the bone actually attach to on the outside surface

69

what is the hole in the bone?

foramen

70

neutrial foreamin

hole in diaphysis

gives nutrients to the inside

71

trabecula function

adds to surface area on inside and gives it strength

72

how many bone cell types are found in bone connective tissue

4
1.) osteoprogenitor
2.) oseoblast
3.) osteocytes
4.) oseoclasts

73

osteoblast

BUILDS BONE MATRIX

B Builds!

74

osteocytes

maintain the bone matrix

75

stem cells

lack specialization and can become something other then itself

76

if a cell can become one other thing, then what is it considered

a stem cell

77

osteoprogenitor

stem cell that can produce another stem cell or an osteoblast

78

mesenchyme

give rise to stem cells from tissue

79

osteoclasts

dissolve bone

80

what is the liquid portion of blood called?

serum

81

if a baby needs calcium to build it's skeleton, and the mother has a low calcium intake, where is the baby going to get the calcium?

from the mother's bones.
triggers hormones that's going to cause osteoclasts to break down hydroxyapetite

82

what is the composition of bone matrix

matrix made of protein and ground substance
protein is collagen fibers
ground substance is hydroxyapetite
hydroxiapetite is made of calcium and phosphate

83

most bones in the body are comproised of what type of bone connective tissue

compact and spongy

84

where do we find compact bone?

on the external surface of long and flat bones

85

where is spongey bone found?

internal surface of bones myeloid tissue, red bone marrow

86

when dealing with flat bone, do you have a medulary cavity?

no
just compact and spongey

87

what type of bone is most type of blood made?

in flat bone

88

intramembranous ossification

bone to bone

89

endochondrial ossification

cartilage to bone

90

what is the formation and development of bone

ossification (osteogenesis)

91

what are the two types of ossification?

1.) intramembranous

2.) endochondral

92

the shaft of a long bone is called

a diaphysis

93

what is the epiphysis in the long bone

the head

94

what does metaphysis refer to in a long bone

region in bone b/w diaphysis and epiphysis containing epiphysial (growth) plate

95

where does the epiphysis and diaphysis in a long bone connect?

metaphysis

96

what is the articular cartilage made out of?

hyaline cartilage

97

what is the function of articular cartilage?

reduces friction b/w articulating bones

98

what does the medullary cavity in long bones contain?

yellow bone marrow

99

what does endosteum cover in the long bone

covers most of the internal surface of the bone

100

what goes around the bone that the tendons attach to?

periosteum

101

periosteum

what the tendons in the bone actually attach to on the outside surface

102

what is the hole in the bone?

foramen

103

neutrial foreamin

hole in diaphysis

gives nutrients to the inside

104

trabecula function

adds to surface area on inside and gives it strength

105

how many bone cell types are found in bone connective tissue

4
1.) osteoprogenitor
2.) oseoblast
3.) osteocytes
4.) oseoclasts

106

osteoblast

BUILDS BONE MATRIX

B Builds!

107

osteocytes

maintain the bone matrix

108

stem cells

lack specialization and can become something other then itself

109

if a cell can become one other thing, then what is it considered

a stem cell

110

osteoprogenitor

stem cell that can produce another stem cell or an osteoblast

111

mesenchyme

give rise to stem cells from tissue

112

osteoclasts

dissolve bone

113

what is the liquid portion of blood called?

serum

114

if a baby needs calcium to build it's skeleton, and the mother has a low calcium intake, where is the baby going to get the calcium?

from the mother's bones.
triggers hormones that's going to cause osteoclasts to break down hydroxyapetite

115

what is the composition of bone matrix

matrix made of protein and ground substance
protein is collagen fibers
ground substance is hydroxyapetite
hydroxiapetite is made of calcium and phosphate

116

most bones in the body are comproised of what type of bone connective tissue

compact and spongy

117

where do we find compact bone?

on the external surface of long and flat bones

118

where is spongey bone found?

internal surface of bones myeloid tissue, red bone marrow

119

when dealing with flat bone, do you have a medulary cavity?

no
just compact and spongey

120

what type of bone is most type of blood made?

in flat bone

121

intramembranous ossification

bone to bone

122

endochondrial ossification

cartilage to bone

chondrocyte to osteocyte

123

what is the formation and development of bone

ossification (osteogenesis)

124

what are the two types of ossification?

1.) intramembranous

2.) endochondral

125

what is another name for growth plate?

endochondrial

126

when does intramembranous ossification start?

clock starts prior to birth, when first been laid

127

what are some examples of intramembranous ossification that happen prior to birth?

flat bones of skull, some facial bones, mandible, and central portion of clavicle

128

what does endochondral ossification begin with?

hyaline cartilage

produces majority of bones in the body

129

what are the stages of intramembranous ossification?

msenchymel cell
osteoid
woven bone
lamellar bone
mature bone

130

what are mesenchymel cells?

stem cells

131

what do mesenchymel cells turn into in the stages of intramembranous ossification?

osteoid

132

what happens after the stem cells become osteoids in intramembranous ossification?

the osteoids lay down hydroxyapetite as well as the matrix

133

what happens as the osteoid continues to grow in intramembranous ossification?

it becomes lamellar bone

134

what is lamellar bone

woven bone with the compact bone on the outside

135

what is the last stage of intramembranous ossification?

becoming mature bone

136

in endochondral ossification, in what way does the bone grow?

bone grows diaphysis

137

what does it mean for the bone to grow diaphysis?

from the inside out

138

which grows faster, diaphysis or epiphysis?

diaphysis

139

once the epiphyseal plates ossify in endochondral ossification, what does it form?

epiphyseal lines

140

what is the epiphyseal plate the site of?

interstitial growth (growth in length) of bone

5 distinct microscopic zones

141

how many types of bone growth are there?

2

142

what are the different types of growth in bone

interstitial growth
appositional growth

143

what does intersitial growth in bone mean?

when a bone grows length wise

144

what does it mean when a bone grows appositionally?

growth in bone diameter

145

is bone growth and cartilage growth the same?

NO
it's different

146

how does bone get their blood supply?

through arteries and veins

147

how many types of blood vessels do bones have?

3

148

function of nutrient arteries and veins in bones

supply the diaphysis of long bones

located along with nerves in shaft of bone

149

where does metaphyseal arteries and veins supply?

supply the junctional area between the diaphysis and the epiphysis

150

what is the hole in a bone called?

foramen

151

how many places do we have a foramen in a long bone

3

152

what is the hole called if it is in the diaphysis?

nutrient foramen

153

if the foramen is in the metaphysis, what is the hole called?

metaphyseal foramen

154

if the hole is in the head of the bone, what is it called?

epiphyseal foramen

155

where do the epiphyseal arteries and veins supply blood in the bone?

cells of the epiphyseal plate

in the head of the bone

156

what is yellow bone marrow?

fat

157

what is the order of bone fracture repair?

1.) hematoma occurs
2.) fibrocartilaginous (soft) callus forms
3.) bony (hard) callus replaces soft callus
4.) bone is remodeled

158

what is a hematoma

blood clot

159

what is the process called when a bony callus replaces the soft callus in bone fracture repair?

ossification of the callus

160

what causes osteoporosis

looses the ability to produce organic matrix (mainly collagen)

loses calcium and other bone salts

161

what is the definition of osteoporosis?

decrease in bone density

162

osteoporosis can result in an increase in what?

bone fractures