Case-Based Review of Carbohydrate Metabolism Flashcards Preview

Digestive, Endocrine, and Metabolic Systems > Case-Based Review of Carbohydrate Metabolism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Case-Based Review of Carbohydrate Metabolism Deck (15):
1

What clinical differences are most likely to be noticed between use of GLP-1 agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors?

GLP-1 agonists are more potent, both in terms of A1c lowering ability and ability to promote weight loss.

2

How can you clinically distinguish between glycogen phosphorylase deficiency, glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency, and debranching enzyme deficiency?

They all present with hepatomegaly, but debranching enzyme deficiency will not present with hypoglycemia; glycogen phosphorylase deficiency will present with more severe hypoglycemia, but not as severe as glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency (because in phosphorylase deficiency you can still have gluconeogenesis, unlike in glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency).

3

What happens in debranching enzyme deficiency?

You can still break down glycogen, but the little remnants at the branch points will remain and damage the liver.

4

What molecular pathway mediates the movement of GLUT4 transporters to the surface of skeletal muscle?

PI-3 kinase

5

MAP kinase represents the ____________ pathway of insulin.

mitogenic

6

____________ deficiency leads to the accumulation of lactate. Why?

Niacin; because it is a necessary cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase. Without it, you have increased pyruvate and thus increased lactate.

7

Doubly labeled water tells you _____________. How can this tell you more information?

energy expenditure; if a person is weight-stable, then energy expenditure equals energy intake

8

How many calories are in a gram of carbohydrate?

4 kcal

9

What is Dr. Bessesen's "magic number" for how many calories per kilogram that a person should eat?

30 kcal/kg

10

Fat provides ______ calories per gram.

9 kcal

11

How are fatty acids involved in gluconeogenesis?

They are broken down to acetyl co-a that provides the energy needed to convert carbons from proteins and triglycerides (via glycerol) to glucose.

12

True or false: fructose increases serum free fatty acid levels.

False.

13

True or false: fructose does not stimulate insulin release.

True.

14

The key regulated step in the TCA cycle is ________________.

pyruvate to acetyl co-a (by pyruvate dehydrogenase)

15

Pyruvate kinase takes you from _______________.

PEP to pyruvate

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