Flashcards in Case Study: Contrasting Stages of Economic Development to Illustrate Mitigation and Adaptation: Australia Deck (26)
What stage of economic development is Australia at?
In 2014 it was the 2nd highest on the UN's HDI and had a per capita gross national income of US$41,500
Environmental Impacts and Threats: Kakadu National Park
Saltwater intrusion along estuaries has damaged freshwater ecosystems in sensitive areas
Environmental Impacts and Threats: Great Barrier Reed
Damaged by rising sea levels, ocean acidification, and bleaching (high temps stress algae in coral so colour is lost and coral dies).
Nutrients and pesticides flow into the sea from coastal farms and cities in Queensland, polluting the water.
The Climate Council said the reef's temperatures in early 2016 were the hottest since records began in 1900.
Environmental Impacts and Threats: Coastal Squeeze
Delicate sea grass and salt marsh ecosystems are trapped between advancing shorelines and sea walls, so are exposed to wave action and erosion.
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Cost
Natural distasters expected to cost the economy US$4.5 billion each year. This is expected to double by 2030.
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Bush Fires
Loss of life
Damage to property and business
2009 bushfires in Victoria killed 173 people and destroyed over 2000 homes
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Coastal Flooding and Rising Sea Levels
Tropical Cyclones have devastated Queensland and New South Wales in the last 15 years. Cyclone Yasi in 2011 reduced Queensland's GDP by US$4 billion
120 ports, 5 power stations, 258 police, fire, and ambulance services, and 45 water and waste facilities are within 200m of the coast
250,000 homes are at risk
If sea level rises were ignored, by 2050 the global impact of coastal flooding would cost $US1 trillion each year - the size of the Australian economy.
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Human Health
2009 heatwaves in the south east led to a sharp increase in heat-related deaths in Melbourne and Adelaide. Temperatures reached 45.1 degrees Celcius
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Murray-Darling Basin
Australia's most important agricultural region
Millennium drought (1996-2010) was the longest on record and led to a steep decline in crop yields leading to expensive government relief packages
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Drought and Rainfall Patterns
Driest inhabited continent
Since the mid 1990s rainfall in the south east has dropped by 15%
Hotter temperatures = more evaporation = intensified and prolonged drought
Affects employment, tourism, water supple, and ecosystems
Socio-Economic Impacts and Threats: Food Supply
Avaerage yields of mungbeans reduced from 1-1.5 tonnes per hectare to 0.1-0.5 tonnes per hectare.
Increases in population and wealth will lift global demand for food by 70% by 2050, but crop yields are decreasing
Mitigation: CO2 emissions increased by what between 1990 and 2010?
Mitigation: CO2 emissions are how high?
Among highest in the world per capita
Mitigation: targets to increase what by 2020?
Mitigation: Kyoto/Copenhagen: in 2013 agreed to what reduction in CO2 at Copenhagen by 2020?
5-25% (based on 2000 emissions)
This was well below other ACs
Mitigation: What is linked to the EU?
Mitigation: Kyoto/Copenhagen: When was Kyoto endorsed?
Mitigation: Paris 2015 (not effective): based on current growth Australia will be how much above Paris targets by 2030?
When did CO2 emissions peak?
2015-17 were in the hottest 6 years on record
Adaptation - what will be upgraded?
Early warning and disaster response
Adaptation - Coastal and River Flooding - prevention with what?
Sea walls, flood gates, dams
Adaptation - Land Use Zoning - What will happen in areas of high flood risk?
Relocate buildings and have strict planning laws to prevent development
Adaptation - Water supply - $9 billion investment programme to do what?
Develop new resources, use existing resources more efficiently, and protect wetland ecosystems
Adaptation - Water supply - Wyangala Dam (New South Wales)
Adaptation - Water supply - Dunyowan Dam (near Tamworth)
$480m new dam