Case Study: Social Inequality in 2 Contrasting Places: Jembatan Besi Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Case Study: Social Inequality in 2 Contrasting Places: Jembatan Besi Deck (43)
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Where is Jembatan Besi located?

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia. Specifically the River Ciliwong, south of Jakarta Bay, 4km NW of Jakarta's centre. It is hemmed in on all sides by other built up areas and the Ciliwong river.


How big is the population of Indonesia?

10 million.
1/4 of these people live in slums


How big is the population of Jembatan Besi?

4000, one of Jakarta's most densely populated areas


What is the average salary?



Why do people live in slums?

The demand for affordable housing greatly exceeds supply


Employment - what is the formal economy?

Economic activity operating within the official legal framework, paying taxes on incomes.


Employment - what is the informal economy?

Economic activities, jobs, and workers that aren't regulated or protected by the state.


What kind of labour can most residents offer?



What type of employment is common?

Self-employment. Many families run their own small businesses.


What are the common types of labour in Jembatan Besi?

Selling food or second hand goods (some of ehich are taken from rubbish tips)


What is a significant industry in Jembatan Besi?

Textiles - it also has many small-scale producers.


What is a problem associated with the textiles industry?

Little protection for those employed in these small factories with few health and safety precautions.


Health: Toilets

Few homes have one.
The ones in the slums are poorly built and are run for profit by local businesses.
They flush out into open streets.


Health: Water

No clean running water.
Groundwater is polluted as Jembatan Besi is built on a former waste tip.


Health: Disease

Cholera and typhoid are prevalent.
The hot and humid climate means malaria and hepatitis A are around.
Young + elderly at risk from dehydration from diarrhoea.


Health: Pollution

High levels of air pollution.
The use kerosene for cooking along with high levels of emissions poses significant health risks


Health: Diet

Mainly rice.
Little fresh protein or fruit + veg,
Large socio-economic inequality has caused massive under and over nutrition.


Health: Sanitation

In Indonesia 50,000 people die every year due to poor sanitation.
RWSiaga++ is a neighbourhood program with the goal of providing sanitation to millions.
Sludge carts reach the unreachable areas so they can be cleared out.
Improved septic tanks built out of local materials only need to be cleaned every 2 years


Environment: Floods

Predictable annual floods from Dec-Feb cause evacuations meaning children can't go to school and diseases occur as water mixes with waste.
Water reaches up to 1m in houses and this level has been increasing since 2012.
But most choose to stay in these flood areas.


Environment: Traffic

Streets covered in cars and motorcycles which account for 70% of the city's air pollution.
Large traffic jams.
Public transport not accommodation for the 10 million residents.


Housing: High demand for what?

Affordable housing


Housing: What are most homes built from?

Well-built ground floor of timber and brick


Housing: Why are they building upwards?

Pressure on space


Housing: Risks

Risk of fire due to overcrowding, use of kerosene, and increased use of electricity


Housing: What lighting is used and why?

Neon tubes and bare light bulbs because the houses have no direct sunlight


Housing: What is the barrier to improving slums?

Planning is difficult


Housing: What is and what has it done?

A building agency which has identified 392 community units planned for improvement


Housing: Why is slum clearance unsustainable?

People just relocate to other slums, making the situation worse there.


Housing: What do the residents of slums share?

A strong sense of community


Education: What is wrong with schools?

They are poorly equipped