Flashcards in Case Study: Structural Economic Change in Birmingham Metropolitan Region Deck (108)
How many residents where there in 2014?
1.1 million - 2nd largest city after London
What is the definition of a metropolitan region?
A region consisting of a densely populated urban core and a less populated surrounding territory sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
How is BMR well connected?
International airport, transport hub, centre of UK
What is the impact of the 3 universities on the demographic?
A youthful population
Is BMR culturally diverse?
Are there areas of deprivation?
Mentioned in Domesday survey as a poor agricultural manor
The de Bermingham family bought a royal charter allowing them to hold a market. Trade allowed the place to grow.
Medieval Birmingham consisted of 6 streets focused on the church and market. Metal work became established. The main area of smelting (the Black County e.g. Wolverhampton) lay in the west and supplied raw materials for the metal working trade.
William Camden (English historian and topographer) reported the town was 'swarming with inhabitants and echoing with the noise of anvils.' Power came from watermills and products became non-agricultural e.g. sword blades
A population of 15,000 due to migration from rural areas. Increase in middle class as service sectors like law and banking developed. Housing differed based on socio-economic status.
Matthew Boulton (entrepreneur and engineer) established the first factory in the world. The 'Soho Manufactory' brought 700 employees under one roof.
Midland terminus of the London to Birmingham Railway opened.
New engineering industries like Austin car plant in Longbridge. Vehicle industry expanded, with 100s of small firms supplying vehicle components.
Dunlop tyre company established a factory employing 10,000 people.
chemical industry was manufacturing Bakelite. Survived the Great Depression of the inter-war years due to the diversity of metal work.
Key products of the 19th century
Guns, jewellery, food processing, Cadbury family set up their Bourneville factory and model village
Key services of the 19th century
finance (banks, insurance, legal firms e.g. Lloyds + Midlands Banks), transport e.g. canals
Why Birmingham was considered a world leader
Revolutionised steam engines
Majority of British inventions got patents within 50km of the city centre
1950s employment: Miscellaneous
1950s employment: Commerce
1950s employment: Agriculture and mining
1950s employment: Metals
1950s employment: Public utilities and government
1950s employment: Transport
1950s employment: Textiles, leather, and clothing
1950s employment: Professions
% change in employment 1978-2000: metal goods
% change in employment 1978-2000: finance