Case Study: Structural Economic Change in Birmingham Metropolitan Region Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Case Study: Structural Economic Change in Birmingham Metropolitan Region Deck (108)
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1

How many residents where there in 2014?

1.1 million - 2nd largest city after London

2

What is the definition of a metropolitan region?

A region consisting of a densely populated urban core and a less populated surrounding territory sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.

3

How is BMR well connected?

International airport, transport hub, centre of UK

4

What is the impact of the 3 universities on the demographic?

A youthful population

5

Is BMR culturally diverse?

Yes

6

Are there areas of deprivation?

Yes

7

Growth: 1086

Mentioned in Domesday survey as a poor agricultural manor

8

Growth: 1166

The de Bermingham family bought a royal charter allowing them to hold a market. Trade allowed the place to grow.

9

Growth: 1256

Medieval Birmingham consisted of 6 streets focused on the church and market. Metal work became established. The main area of smelting (the Black County e.g. Wolverhampton) lay in the west and supplied raw materials for the metal working trade.

10

Growth: 1563

William Camden (English historian and topographer) reported the town was 'swarming with inhabitants and echoing with the noise of anvils.' Power came from watermills and products became non-agricultural e.g. sword blades

11

Growth: 1700

A population of 15,000 due to migration from rural areas. Increase in middle class as service sectors like law and banking developed. Housing differed based on socio-economic status.

12

Growth: 1761

Matthew Boulton (entrepreneur and engineer) established the first factory in the world. The 'Soho Manufactory' brought 700 employees under one roof.

13

Growth: 1838

Midland terminus of the London to Birmingham Railway opened.

14

Growth: 1906

New engineering industries like Austin car plant in Longbridge. Vehicle industry expanded, with 100s of small firms supplying vehicle components.

15

Growth: 1917

Dunlop tyre company established a factory employing 10,000 people.

16

Growth: 1950

chemical industry was manufacturing Bakelite. Survived the Great Depression of the inter-war years due to the diversity of metal work.

17

Key products of the 19th century

Guns, jewellery, food processing, Cadbury family set up their Bourneville factory and model village

18

Key services of the 19th century

finance (banks, insurance, legal firms e.g. Lloyds + Midlands Banks), transport e.g. canals

19

Why Birmingham was considered a world leader

Revolutionised steam engines
Xrays (1896)
Radar pioneering
Majority of British inventions got patents within 50km of the city centre

20

1950s employment: Miscellaneous

19.4%

21

1950s employment: Commerce

12%

22

1950s employment: Agriculture and mining

1.5%

23

1950s employment: Metals

50%

24

1950s employment: Public utilities and government

4.5%

25

1950s employment: Transport

5.7%

26

1950s employment: Textiles, leather, and clothing

2.5%

27

1950s employment: Professions

4.4%

28

% change in employment 1978-2000: metal goods

Down 22.6%

29

% change in employment 1978-2000: finance

Up 14.1%

30

1950s - 60s unemployment

<1%