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Flashcards in Cat 2 Deck (54):
1

True or False: Programming services are part of the Scope of Architect's Basic Services

False. Programming should not be confused with Schematic Design, which is included in basic services. The Owner will either provide the Architect with a program or hire the Architect to perform the programming service as an additional service.

2

What are three important duties of the Architect during Administration of Programming Services?

1. Confirm scope and intent of project with Owner.
2. Prepare a schedule for Programming Services, including milestone dates, services furnished by the Architect, and completion of documentation provided by the Architect.
3. Submit programming documents to the Owner for evaluation and approval.

3

How can the Architect determine the values, goals, and objectives of the Owner and users during the programming phase?

1. Conduct a visioning session to discuss and prioritize values and goals that will impact the project. Prepare a written evaluation for the Owner's review.
2. Meet with the Owner to confirm and finalize the priorities, values and goals of the project.
3. Identify and evaluate the constraints and opportunities that will have an impact, such as government requirements, finances, and access to name a few.

4

After reviewing and analyzing the project data during programming, what should the Architect do next?

1. Identify any major unresolved programming issues.
2. Make recommendations for solutions to the unresolved programming issues to the Owner.
3. Prepare and present initial report of findings for Owner's review.

5

What is included in the Architect's final program document?

1. Executive summary.
2. Value and goal statements.
3. Facts, data analysis, and conclusions.
4. Relationship and flow diagrams.
5. Matrices identifying space allocations, relationships, functions and sizes.
6. Special requirements and equipment such as HVAC, plumbing, acoustics, furnishings, etc.

6

Describe how the Architect gathers programming project information and indicate what information is collected.

Architect shall compile and review existing project related documentation, such as:
Reports on existing facilities, site surveys, applicable codes, historical documents, and planning standards.
Architect shall conduct a walkthrough of the existing facilities and/or site with the Owner to prepare a space inventory, identify traffic and circulation patterns, and use levels.

7

What are three ways the Architect determines the specific space requirements of the project during programming?

1. Identify all required spaces and establish sizes and relationships.
2. Establish space efficiency factors (ration of net square footage to gross square footage).
3. Document particular space requirements such as HVAC, plumbing, lighting, acoustical, furnishings, equipment or security needs.

8

What are considered additional services during the programming phase?

1. Multiple Site Evaluation
2. Site Suitability and planning
3. Master planning
4. Preliminary design and cost estimating
5. Scheduling and market analysis
6. Detailed existing facility evaluation
7. Environmental suitability
8. Services in support of Owner's other consultants

9

Site Evaluation and Planning is considered an additional service during programming. What are the Architect's first steps during the process?

1. Prepare a schedule for site evaluation and planning services that identifies milestone dates, services furnished by the Architect, and completion of documentation provided by the Architect.

10

Name five services that could be specifically designated as the Architect's responsibility during Site Evaluation and Planning.

1. Program Analysis - area required for building, parking, circulation, open space, etc.
2. Site Analysis and Selection - existing conditions study, assist Owner in selecting site.
3. Cultural Factor Analysis - research history of the site and analyze impact of development.
4. Environmental Studies - determine impact of project on environment.
5. Economic Analysis - impact on development cost.

11

Who is responsible for all decisions regarding design during programming?

The Owner.

The Architect is mainly responsible for collecting design information and presenting the data to the Owner for review and decision.

12

The Architect and Owner are in disagreement on which design layout would be most appropriate for a project. Who makes the final decision?

The Owner.

The Architect mainly provides information and data to support a certain layout or design. It is ultimately the Owner's decision for which design to choose.

13

When should the budget for the project as well as the cost estimate be prepared during programming?

The budget should be supplied by the Owner at the beginning of the programming phase.

If specifically designated by the Owner, the Architect supplies a preliminary cost estimate for the project as an additional service. This would occur once the program is complete.

14

You have received conflicting instructions from the project manager and superintendent, both hired by the Owner. Whose instructions should you follow?

Though both parties are hired by the Owner, generally one person has been designated as the authorized representative on the Owner's behalf and so should be the lead contact for information by the Architect. If, however, a dispute arises the Owner should be contacted for final direction.

15

What are five ways in which an Architect can involve the client, users, consultants and stakeholders in developing the project design?

1. Attend community meetings.
2. Hold private meetings with clients and end users.
3. Hold public meetings with stakeholders and clients.
4. Hold town hall type meetings for the community.
5. Hold a charette to encourage input on design.

16

Name four ways an Architect can communicate design ideas and collect feedback from users and stakeholders

1. Present plans, elevations, models and 3D sketches.
2. Show a Power Point presentation.
3. Conduct interviews with stakeholders and end users.
4. Distribute questionnaires to clients, end users, and stakeholders.

17

What are the main concerns stakeholders and community groups may have related to a project's impact on the surrounding area?

Impact and effect on:
1. Environment (increase in pollution, displacement of animals and plants on site, alteration of water movement on site).
2. Increases in traffic, noise, and density.
3. Inappropriate uses for the neighborhood.

18

What are some common materials that may contain VOCs? Name two methods for controlling their effect on indoor air quality.

Off-gassing of VOCs may come from glues and adhesives from carpet, millwork, and hardwood flooring as well as paint.
To mitigate this hazard, the Architect should specify low/no VOC products as well as provide adequate passive and mechanical ventilation to continually bring fresh air into the building.

19

What are three ways the Architect determines the specific space requirements of the project during programming?

1. Identify all required spaces and establish sizes and relationships.
2. Establish space efficiency factors (ratio of net square footage to gross square footage).
3. Document particular space requirements such as HVAC, plumbing, lighting, acoustical, furnishings, equipment or security needs.

20

What are considered additional services during the programming phase?

1. Multiple Site Evaluation
2. Site Suitability and planning
3. Master planning
4. Preliminary design and cost estimating
5. Scheduling and market analysis
6. Detailed existing facility evaluation
7. Environmental suitability
8. Services in support of Owner's other consultants

21

Site Evaluation and Planning is considered an additional service during programming. What are the Architect's first steps during this process?

1. Prepare a schedule for site evaluation and planning services that identifies milestone dates, services furnished by the Architect, and completion of documentation provided by the Architect.

22

Name five services that could be specifically designated as the Architect's responsibility during Site Evaluation and Planning.

1. Program Analysis - area required for building, parking, circulation, open space, etc.
2. Site Analysis and Selection - existing conditions study, assist Owner in selecting site.
3. Cultural Factor Analysis - research history of the site and analyze impact of development.
4. Environmental Studies - determine impact of project on environment.
5. Economic Analysis - impact on development cost.

23

Who is responsible for all decisions regarding design during programming?

The Owner.

The Architect is mainly responsible for collecting design information and presenting the data to the Owner for review and decision.

24

The Architect and Owner are in disagreement on which design layout would be most appropriate for a project. Who makes the final decision?

The Owner.

The Architect mainly provides information and data to support a certain layout or design. It is ultimately the Owner's decision for which design to choose.

25

What should the budget for the project as well as the cost estimate be prepared during programming?

The budget should be supplied by the Owner at the beginning of the programming phase.

26

You have received conflicting instructions from the project manager and superintendent, both hired by the Owner. Whose instructions should you follow?

Though both parties are hired by the Owner, generally one person has been designated as the authorized representative on the Owner's behalf and so should be the lead contact for information by the Architect. If, however, a dispute arises the Owner should be contacted for final direction.

27

What are five ways in which an Architect can involve the client, users, consultants and stakeholders in developing the project design?

1. Attend community meetings.
2. Hold private meetings with clients and end users.
3. Hold public meetings with stakeholders and clients.
4. Hold town hall type meetings for the community.
5. Hold a charette to encourage input on design.

28

Name four ways an Architect can communicate design ideas and collect feedback from users and stakeholders.

1. Present plans, elevations, models and 3D sketches.
2. Show a Power Point presentation.
3. Conduct interviews with stakeholders and end users.
4. Distribute questionnaires to clients, end users, and stakeholders.

29

What are the main concerns stakeholders and community groups may have related to a project's impact on the surrounding area?

Impact and effect on:
1. Environment (increase in pollution, displacement of animals and plants on site, alteration of water movement on site).
2. Increases in traffic, noise, and density.
3. Inappropriate uses for the neighborhood.

30

What are some common materials that may contain VOCs? Name two methods for controlling their effect on indoor air quality.

Off-gassing of VOCs may come from glues and adhesives from carpet, millwork, and hardwood flooring as well as paint.
To mitigate this hazard, the Architect should specify low/no VOC products as well as provide adequate passive and mechanical ventilation to continually bring fresh air into the building.

31

A site is located near an industrial center with a high level of air pollution. What are some measures to protect building users from harmful air borne particulates?

1. Install air filter equivalent to MERV (Minimum Efficiency Reporting Value) 13 or better.
2. Regular maintenance of the building ventilation systems, such as cleaning filters, and replacing outdated equipment.
3. Incorporate dehumidification or humidification equipment.

32

What is the difference between carbon monoxide and radon and what are mitigation measures for each?

Carbon monoxide is generated from fires or combustion equipment.
Mitigation measures - vent combustion equipment directly to the outside, install detectors in sleeping rooms & hallways.
Radon naturally occurs in the soil as uranium and thorium decay.
Mitigation measures - conduct testing, increase under floor and basement ventilation, install a radon sump pump in basement.

33

What are the main causes of mold and mildew growth and how can this problem be avoided?

Mold and mildew growth occurs most often in wet areas such as bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms, and shower rooms. In order to grow, mold requires an environment with excessive moisture, lack of ventilation, organic compounds to serve as a food source, and warm air temperature.
Installing passive ventilation (operable windows) and mechanical ventilation (direct venting to exterior) can help avoid many mold issues.

34

During schematic design of a preschool, you are approached by a group of parents who request a certain finish material for the playground. How should you respond?

As the Architect, it is important to receive input from end users during the design process. However, an Architect should not take direction from an end user but rather forward the request or concern on to the client for review and final direction.

35

What are similar design characteristics that would be utilized in the design of a nursing home and an elementary school?

Both user groups, the elderly and children, require more security, adult supervision, are sensitive to material finishes, and higher indoor air quality should become a priority.
For the elderly, other concerns include less mobility and increased lighting levels.
For children, other concerns include use of softer surfaces and accommodating higher levels of activity.

36

How does contracting with an individual homeowner differ from a building project with a corporation?

When designing for an individual homeowner, the Architect interacts directly with the Owner for all project decisions and direction.
A business or corporation generally employs a board of directors, of whom an authorized representative will be designated to act on behalf of the board for all project related matters.

37

You have been hired to design a synagogue, however you have no knowledge of the Jewish culture. How can you ensure your design will meet the needs of your client and end users?

1. Hire a cultural consultant.
2. Conduct studies of the culture through research, travel or interviews.
3. Attend an assembly or gathering.
4. Hold design review meetings.
5. Conduct interviews and distribute questionnaires with members of the cultural community.

38

What is the importance of including input from user groups during programming?

In order to fully understand any assumptions an to verify analysis data, such as space planning, adjacencies and function, it is important that the Architect collect information from end users to make sure the building will function adequately once completed.

39

What is the difference between a Citizen's Advisory Committee and a Neighborhood Community Organization?

Citizen's Advisory Committee is a group of community members appointed by local board or agency to provide input and feedback on project proposals.

40

How can an Architect determine stakeholder expectation and influence project participation?

To determine expectations, an Architect should conduct interviews, focus groups, workshops, surveys and observation.

To influence stakeholders, an Architect should create partnerships, keep all parties involved and informed, and have regular milestone meetings.

41

Name three design methods to maintain appropriate internal lighting levels.

1, Daylight sensors - artificial lighting is increased or decreased depending on the amount of natural light entering the space.
2. Occupancy sensors - lights turn off when space is not in use.
3. Dimmable controls - occupants have control to increase or decrease lighting levels in individual spaces.

42

Name four site related safety design measures and four building related safety design measures an Architect can incorporate into a project.

1. Site Safety - Building lighting at exterior, including entryways and exit doors; site lighting in parking lot; access control (keys, cards, etc.); security cameras.
2. Building Safety - Controlled check in area; alarms (fire, smoke, elevator, security); egress (paths clearly marked, emergency evacuation plan); glazing (tempered in stairways, doors).

43

Name three design methods to maintain the proper internal air temperature.

1. Occupancy sensors - HVAC equipment set to properly cool or heat a space based on number of occupants.
2. Zoning - "hot areas" receive more cooling while warm areas receive less heat.
3. Thermostatic controls - occupants have control over individual spaces.

44

How do the acoustical design concerns differ between an office building and an auditorium?

An office building will likely require control of noise between loud and quiet spaces (conference rooms vs. private offices) though the use of separation/isolation, metal furring strips, acoustical tiles and insulation.
An auditorium will focus more on directing and reflecting sound as well as absorbing it in necessary spaces, such as backstage areas.

45

What are four energy efficiency design methods that can be incorporated into a building project?

1. Heating & Air Conditioning - properly seal ducts, install multiple zones and programmable thermostats, use high efficiency furnace.
2. Water Heating - insulate hot water tanks & pipes, use solar hot water system.
3. Lighting - use daylighting, fluorescent or LEDs, install dimmer controls and occupancy sensors.
4. Appliances - select Energy Star appliances.

46

Other than low flow showerheads and toilets, what are other design methods for water conservation?

1. Install a graywater system to reuse irrigation water.
2. Install a rainwater harvesting system to reuse rainfall.
3. Install drought tolerant landscaping to reduce amount of site water used.
4. Drip irrigation or sprinklers on timers and rain sensors to reduce site water used.

47

What five actions can an Architect take to utilize resource conservation during project design?

1. Re-use existing materials on site.
2. Re-use recyclable materials.
3. Select locally manufactured materials.
4. Use rapidly renewable materials.
5. Use wood products that have been sustainably harvested.

48

Which of the following adjacencies is the most appropriate for a day spa?
A. Reception, locker rooms, treatment
B. Reception, treatment, locker rooms
C Entry, restrooms,

D. This flow of adjacencies is the most appropriate for this building function as it moves from more public spaces to more private spaces.

49

What factors should an Architect consider when developing spatial requirements and adjacencies?

1. Assign priority to spaces to determine most important adjacencies.
2. Consider furniture and special equipment placement.
3. Analyze flow patterns of occupants, vehicular traffic patterns, future needs of building, open space requirements.

50

What kind of programming requirements would need to be considered for the design of a fire station?

1. Needs of the firefighters and staff
2. Adequate spaces for necessary equipment
3. Administrative and sleeping facilities
4. Size and requirements for fire truck bays

51

The Owner has chosen a site that is long and narrow and asymmetrical in shape. How could this affect the design of the project?

Space sizes could be affected if large rooms are required.
Building orientation will be important in order to maximize site efficiency while still taking advantage of views, sunlight, ventilation, etc.
Parking and other site requirements may be affected if there is not enough land remaining outside of the building footprint.

52

Name six topographical conditions to consider when evaluating a site.

1. Grading - is the site flat, hilly, or sloped?
2. Vehicular Access - during & after construction.
3. Utilities Access - existing on site or must be extended.
4. Site Features - rock outcroppings, cliffs, forests, etc.
5. Bodies of water - wetlands, lakes, streams, ocean, etc.
6. Views - preserve significant existing views.

53

A site is located on a steep, undeveloped slope with southern views to the ocean. What are three primary concerns for this location?

1. Grading and Foundation type - steep slope will require either extensive grading or a pile foundation system, or both.
2. Utilities Access - an undeveloped piece of land will need to connect to existing utilities.
3. Views - preservation of southern view may be desired.

54

How can a site be designed to avoid the ponding of water?

1. Reduce the amount of paving on site or use pervious paving materials.
2. Include proper grading and swales to direct water away from the building and to the storm drain system.