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Ophthalmology > Cataracts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cataracts Deck (43)
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1

What is a cataract?

Increased opacity in the lens = diffuse changes throughout the lens

2

What is the most common cause of cataracts in cats?

Anterior uveitis

3

How does trauma cause cataracts?

Disrupts lens fibers or causing uveitis

4

What endocrine disease of dogs causes cataracts?

Diabetes mellitus

5

How do you treat a cataract?

Phacoemulsification

6

How do you ddx between a complete vs. incomplete cataract?

Can see through an incomplete cataract (tapetal reflection can be seen through it)

7

What type of cataract is focal and should only have minor effect on vision?

Incipient

8

What type of cataract is a degradation process of lens proteins after the development of the cataract?

Resorbing cataract

9

Which infectious disease of rabbits infects the lenses and cause phacoclastic cataracts and uveitis?

E. cunniculi

10

What teratogenic disease of cattle causes stillborn weak calves with "white eye calf syndrome" (congenital cataracts)?

Bluetongue fvirus

11

Are diabetes-related cataracts uni- or bilateral?

Bilateral

12

What is a common cause of cataracts and blindness in horses?

Equine recurrent uveitis

13

How do you distinguish nuclear sclerosis from a cataract?

Retro illumination (will see fundus and tapetal reflection)

14

This type of cataract is common w//diabetes in which cataract progression is driven by an osmotic effect

Intumescent cataract

15

What is phacoemulsification?

Lens broken up using ultrasound energy and aspiration

16

What is nuclear sclerosis?

Hardening of the lens that occurs naturally in animals

17

Does nuclear sclerosis cause vision loss?

No

18

What causes the osmotic pulling effect of an intumescent cataract when trapped within the lens capsule?

Aldose reducase

19

Are cataracts hereditary?

No but they can be congenital

20

How can you judge the position of opacity in the lens?

Oblique examination

21

How can you decide the depth of an opacity in the lens?

Parallax

22

Anterior opacities move in the ____ direction as the eye

Same

23

Posterior opacities move in the ____ direction as the eye

Opposite

24

How do nuclear sclerosis opacities move relative to the eye?

Appear to remain stationary

25

What are the 4 stages of cataract maturation?

Incipient, incomplete/immature, complete/mature, resorbing

26

How does the lens appear with a resorbing cataract?

Shriveled like a raisin

27

How large is an incipient cataract?

<20% of lens affected

28

In addition to the wrinkled appearance, what will you see in the lens when it starts to liquify and resorb?

"Sparkles"

29

With which type of cataract might you see separation clefts (Y-suture)?

Intumescent cataract

30

What is the most common cause of cataracts in dogs?

Inherited