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Flashcards in Causes and Symptoms Deck (21):
1

hypoxic injury

caused by lack of ability to use oxygen; insufficient ATP production is the primary mechanism

2

cell injury

when cells lose function because of disturbances, cellular injury has occured

3

Three effects of hypoxic injuries

1. Na, K-ATPase pump can't eject sodium ions fro the cytosol
2. Ca2+ ions accumulate
3. Anaerobic respiration is increased in an attempt to make up the ATP shortfall

4

What are the effects when Na, K-ATPase pumps can't eject sodium ions from the cytosol?

-this causes an osmotic imbalance, which brings water into the cell
-cell swelling and lysis may occur
-concentration of ions inside the cells increases, which leads to water

5

What are the effects when Calcium ions accumulate in the cell?

Calcium can act in signal transduction whihc leads to inapporopriate signaling
-this disrupts cell biochemistry
-increased calcium ions in mitochondria and can trigger cell death

6

Where are calcium ions usually in cells?

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum

7

What are the effects of anaerobic respiration increasing in an attempt to make up for the ATP shortfall?

Causes an increase in lactic acid because it is a product of anaerobic respiration
-an increase in lactic acid decreases the cellular pH
-DNA clumps and lysosomes release enzymes digesting the cell

8

Glycolysis

glucose to pyruvate to citric acid cycle to electron transport chain (gain 20 something ATP) or from pyruvate to lactic acid (gain little, 2, ATP)

9

Reperfusion injury

-major source of cellular injury that occurs as hypoxia is relieved
-can sometimes be worse than the ischemic injury itself

10

free radicals (reperfusion)

-formed from excessive oxygen
-product of ischemic injury and reperfusion

11

calcium overload in cells (reperfusion)

-no known mechanism of how that happens
-it affects intercellular mechanism

12

neurtophils (reperfusion)

causes inflammation in tissues and cells death

13

What are the effects of cell injury?

-loss of function
-infiltration
-cell death (necrosis or apoptosis)

14

Infiltration

synonym for cellular accumulation
-common effect of chronic sorts of cellular injury which leads to metabolites that are not being properly handled build up within the cells

15

Fatty liver

-can be from alcohol consumption

16

Accumulation of denatured proteins

alcoholic hepatomegaly, alzhemimer's

17

Accumulation of denatured proteins example

alcoholic hepatomegaly, alzhemimer's

18

Accumulation of endogenous material due to faulty enzymes in lysosomes example

Tay-Sachs disease

19

Accumulation of material that is indigestible example

Carbon accumulation

20

Necrosis

cell death
-affects groups of cells
-evoked by non-physiological events (viruses, ischemia, toxins, etc.)
-inflammation
-swelling of the cytoplasm and mitochondria
-loss of plasma membrane integrity
-no energy requirement; passive process
-calcium overload a key feature
-rupture

21

Apoptosis

intentional, programmed cellular suicide
-induced by physiological stimuli
-no inflammation
-shrinking of cytoplasm and condensation of nucleus
-blebbing of plasma membrane with no loss of integrity
-energy (ATP)-dependent; active process; functional mitochondria
-cell death pathway activation
-fragmentation
-material of cell is digested by surrounding cells or WBC