Flashcards in CBC Deck (36):
What's the standard range for WBC?
4.8 1000mL - 10.8 1000mL
What's the standard range for RBC?
4.7 1000mL - 6.1 1000mL
What's the standard range for Hgb?
14 g/dL - 18 g/dL
What's the standard range for Hct?
42 - 52%
What's the standard range for MCV?
81 um3/RBC - 98 um3/RBC
What's the standard range for MCH?
27 pg -31 pg
What's the standard range for MCHC?
32 - 36%
What can we tell looking at WBC?
Generally points to infection
What other factors affect WBC values?
Stress, meds and trauma can increase WBC count. Also, infections by amebiases and yellow fevers do not increase WBC.
What WBC differentials help provide a more detailed analysis?
Netrophils, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils and Bands
What are neutrophils?
Predominant WBC at 40- 70%. Engulfs invading organisms.
What are Lymphocytes?
20- 40% of WBC
Consists of B Cells and T Cells.
What are B Cell and T Cell lymphocytes?
B Cells create and secrete antibodies.
T Cells are "helpers" and seek and destroy virally infected or abnormal cells. Also secretes proteins that help B Cell function.
What are Monocytes?
2- 8% of WBC
Destroy gram negative bacterias and helps boost other WBC activity.
What are Eosinophils?
5% of WBC
Responds to parasites and some other bacterias that cause vasoconstriction
Helps to increase small vessel permeability.
What are Basophils?
< 5% of WBC
Same effect as Eosinophils
Called in after an allergic response
What are Bands?
< 3% of WBC
They are immature WBCs that are released from the bone marrow
What's the standard range for RBC?
Male: 4.7 to 6.1 million cells per microliter (cells/mcL)
Female: 4.2 to 5.4 million cells/mcL
Under these ranges indicate Anemia
RBC Typing is a factor of AGE not Function
What are Reticulocytes?
Young RBC that have been released in the last 48 hours.
ID by their large size and presence of certain proteins
Released at the same rate as old RBC are destroyed
What are Hemoglobin?
These transport gases for lung exchange
Generally used as indicator of Anemia or Polycythemia
Low Hemoglobin can indicate?
Associated with Hypoxia
Hemorrhage can lead to acute loss of Lung function
What is Hgb Value?
How much Hgb is in 100 mL of blood
What is Hct?
Hematocrit is the centrifuged red sediment (RBC) vs the plasma fluid.
Is describes the interplay between Fluid Volume, RBC count and RBC size
Low Hct can indicate?
Pt with fluid overload.
High Hct can indicate?
Pt with dehydration
High Hct followed by a delayed drop in Hct can indicate?
The drop is due to vasoconstriction. Values can indicate Blood loss. But this is an unreliable measure.
Low Hct followed by high Hct can indicate?
Diabetes, related to Hyperglycemic Macrocytosis. When glucose is pulled into the RBC.
What are the Red Cell Indices?
MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW
What is MCV and what are the 3 possible outcomes?
Mean Corpuscular Volume is the first index on the CBC and it is a measure of the average volume of the RBC.
3 possible outcomes are Microcytic, Normocytic and Macrocytic Anemias.
What are the common causes for Microcytic Anemia?
Most commonly causes are:
1. Iron deficiency (usually from chronic blood loss)
2. From B Thalessemia minor.
These are very different conditions and can be differentiated using the Mentzer Index.
What is the Mentzer Index?
When exploring a Microcytic Anemia, MCV/RBC.and look at the value.
If > 13, it is Iron Deficiency
If < 13, it is B Thalassemia
What are the common causes for Macrocytic Anemia?
3 Most Common causes are
1. Alcohol abuse
2. Folic Acid deficiency
3. Vit B 12 deficiency
It is important to treat BOTH Folic Acid deficiency AND Vit B12 deficiency.
What is important to note about Macrocytic Anemia as related to Vit B12 deficiency?
If mistaken for Folic Acid deficiency and Only Folic acid is given as treatment, it can lead to psychosis, ataxia and other neurological deficits similar to M.S.
For Vit B12 Deficiency also test for.
1. Reduced vibratory sensations in lower extremities
2.Yellow/Blue Color blindness.
This are precursors of Severe, permanent neuro damage.
What is MCH?
Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin is an undicator of how much Hgb is in the blood.
What are the 3 types of Anemias related to MCH?
1. Hypochromic - Low MCH - suggests Iron deficiency, chronic blood loss or thalassemia
2.Normochromic - Normal MCH - suggests acute blood loss, renal/ bone marrow failure, hypometabolic states (esp Diabetes).
3.Hyperchromic - High MCH - suggests Alcohol abuse, low Folic Acid or B12, and estrogen administration