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what are the disaccharides?

maltose
lactose
sucrose

1

what produces insulin

beta cells in islets of langerhans

2

glucose + galactose =

lactose

3

release of abosorbed glucose for the cells immediate energy needs

glycolysis

4

what converts alpha-D-glucose to beta-D-glucose

mutarotase

5

paggawa ng bagong carbohydrates

gluconeogenesis

6

glucose > glycogen

glycogenesis

7

what produces glucagon

alpha cells in islet

8

stimulates glucose uptake and formation of glycogen

insulin

9

DM in random blood glucose if

>200mg/dL(11.1mmol/L)

10

glycogen > glucose

glycogenolysis

11

precursor of insulin

proinsulin

12

effect of decreased protein to urea

decreased also

13

precursos or glucagon

proglucagon

14

monitoring prior to glycosylated Hb test

2 to 3 months

15

inhibits both insulin and glucagon production

somatostatin

16

increased level of NPNs in general

azotemia

17

glucose + fructose =

sucrose

18

what is the rate of metab in room temp

7 mg/dl

19

principle of glucose dehydrogenase

spectrophotometric meas of reduced chromogen

20

refers to an insulin-resistant state

syndrome x

21

glucose oxidase converts

beta-D-glucose > D-gluconolactone

22

glucose + Mg ATP > (_______) > G-6-P + Mg ADP

hexokinase

23

this is a short-term glycemic control method

fructosamine assay

24

due to insulin deficiency or abnormal insulin action

DM

25

adult onset DM

type 2

26

DM in 2hr postload glucose or OGTT if

>200mg/dL

27

IDDM

type 1

28

juvenile onset DM

type 1

29

NIDM

type 2

30

major NPN compound in plasma

urea

31

monitoring prior to frustosamine assay

2-6 weeks

32

the normal level of glycosylated hemoglobin

4-6%

33

ways of glycemic control

glycosylated Hb

34

increase of 1% in HbA1c is equivalent to an increase of how many mg/dL in blood glucose?

30mg/dL

abnormal starts from 120mg/dL (6%)

35

symptoms of hyperglycemia

polyphagia
polyuria
polydypsia

36

this is a familial disease

type 2

37

diminished glomerular filtration in an otherwise normal renal function

azotemia that is not due to kidney fuction

pre-renal azotemia

38

what is the regular monitoring of fructosamine level?

monthly

39

low plasma glucose characterizes

hypoglycemia

40

the level of fructose during fast is

almost zero

41

oxidation of uric acid by alkaline phosphotungstate in a protein-free solution

Caraway method

42

major carbohydrate in milk

lactose

43

how is peroxide from urease hydrolysis quantitated?

addition of phenol to form QUINONEIMINE DYE

44

results from accumulation of lactoc acid as a result of defects in lactic acid metabolism

lactic acidosis

45

NPNs used for KFT

urea
creatinine

46

major products of protein catabolism

urea

47

percent of urea excreted through the kidney

90%

48

occurs due to renal failure or abnormality

renal azotemia

49

higher fluid intake leads to ______ urea

decreased

50

azotemia involving the urinary tract (urethra, bladder)

post-renal azotemia

51

Fearon reaction uses what enzyme

DAM diacetyl monoxime

52

direct measure of urea

DAM

53

can be treated with exercise and diet

type 2

54

indirect measure of urea

urease test

55

best index KFT

creatinine

56

specimen ofc hoice for uric acid

serum and urine

57

in bethelot reaction, what is added to ammonium to produce indophenol

nitroprusside

58

what produces somatostatin

delta cells in islets

59

oxidation of uric acid by uricase leads to

allantoin

60

this NPN is not affected by diet

creatinine

61

creatinine is formed from

dehydrated creatine

62

2 glucose =

maltose

63

how many in percent of creatinine is not filtered by glomerulus

10%

64

waste product of muscle catabolism

creatine

65

product of Jaffe rxn

bright orange to red complex

66

what is added to Jaffe rxn to remove interference

lloyd rgt

67

composition of lloyd rxn

aluminum silicate

68

the bright orange-red complex of Jaffe rxn is read at what absorbance level

485 nmn

69

product of purine and nucleic acid catabolism

uric acid/urate

70

reduction of phosphotungstic acid leads to

tungsten blue

71

enzyme needed in uric acid formation

xanthine oxidase

72

characterized by serum urate
>7mg/dL

hyperuricemia

73

this is deaminated glutamine

ammonia

74

why is ammonia process stat

increased value when delayed

75

enzyme for the oxidation of uric acid to allantoin

uricase

76

building blocks of protein

amino acids

77

microbiological assay that meas the ability of phenylalanine in the sample to overcome the metabolic inhibition of beta thienylalanine on a strain of B. subtilis

Guthrie screening test

78

amino acids are linked by

peptide bonds

79

basic AA

Arg
His
Lys

80

acidic AA

Asp
Glu

81

sulfure containing AA

cysteine
methionine

82

aliphatic AA

Ala
Val
Leu
Ile

83

pH at which a particular protein has a net charge equal to zero

isoelectric point (pI)

84

most abundant protein in serum

albumin

85

simple proteins

albumin
collagen
troponin

86

dye used to measure secretory capacity of tubules

PSP
phenolsulfonphthalein

87

quantitation of PSP in urine is done by adding NaOH to form

red soln

88

conjugated proteins

metalloprotein
lipoprotein
glycoprotein
nucleoprotein

89

electrophoresis in a homogenous soln without solid support

moving or frontal electro

90

electrophoresis with solid support

zonal electro

91

fastest protein in electrophoresis

albumin

92

slowest protein in electrophoresis

gamma

93

5 zones in electrophoresis

albumin
alpha 1 globulin
alpha 2 glo
beta glo
gamma glo

94

dyes for serum electrophoresis

Coomasie blue
Ponceau S
Amido black

95

dyes for lipoproteins

Sudan black
Oil Red O

96

how are globulins and albumins separated?

precipitation and decantation

97

factor for converting N to urea

2.14

98

factor for coverting N to proteins

6.25

99

peptide bonds cut by Biuret rgt forms

purple color

100

what is effect of Biuret rgt

cuts peptide bonds

101

this protein can bind a molecule of thyroxine

prealbumin

102

formed from 3 fatty acids + glycerol

TG

103

this protein is the mobile repository of AA

albumin

104

largest major non-Ig protein in plasma

alpha 2 macroglobulin

105

this protein is more abundant in women than men

alpha 2 macroglobulin

106

this protein rises 10-fold or more in nephrotic syndrome

alpha 2 macroglobulin

107

combines with Hb released by cell lysis

haptoglobin

108

transport of iron

transferrin

109

copper binding protein

ceruloplasmin

110

binds hema released by degradation of hemoglobin

hemopexin

111

elevated during pregnancy

alpha 1 acid glycoprotein

112

other name for alpha 1 acid glycoprotein

orosomucoid

113

earliest indicator of inflammation

C-reactive protein

114

increased in amniotic fluid and serum in neural tube defects

alpha 1 fetoprotein

115

how long can serum remain stable if refrigerated?

48hrs

116

what is the solution used in Jaffe's rxn

picric acid

117

most widely used method for creatinine quantitation

Jaffe reaction

118

DM in FBG if

>126mg/dL

119

T or F. does any condition associated with shortened RBC survival lowers HbA1c?

true

120

converts beta-D-glucose to gluconic acid and peroxide

GOD

121

NPNs for LFT

uric acid

122

what is the color of indophenol

blue

123

absolute insulin deficiency DM

type 1

124

it is seen in individuals who secrete excessive insulin

insulinoma/islet cell hyperplasia

125

DM where ketosis is common

type 1

126

what are the monosaccharides?

glucose
fructose
galactose

127

normal value for L/S ratio

>2

140

L/S ratio is used

to determine lung maturity of babies

141

organic substance insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents

lipids

142

lecithin serves as

lung lubricant (pampadulas ng alveolar sacs)

143

sphingomyelin serves as

surfactant

144

components of cardiac profile

TG
cholesterol
HDL
LDL

145

Hantsch condensation technique is for

TG

146

protein that can combine and inactivate trypsin

alpha antitrypsin

146

used to diagnose neural tubes

alpha-1-fetoprotein

146

specimen for L/S ratio test

amniotic fluid

146

used to monitor hepatic coma

ammonia

147

bad cholesterol

LDLc

148

enzymatic method for TG uses

LPL
HTGL

149

chylo, LDL and VLDL are precipitated while HDL is left by using

heparin-Mn

150

chemicals used for Hantsch technique

diacetyl acetone and ammonia

151

at what level does TG make the serum turbid

>400mg/dL

152

VLDL if TG is in mmol/L

TG/2.175

153

bile acids in liver are derived from

cholesterol

154

turbid or milky appreance of serum after fat ingestion is termed

postprandial lipemia

155

postprandial lipemia is caused by

chylomicrons

156

cholesterol ester is formed through esterification of the free cholesterol with _______

fatty acid

157

esterification of cholesterol occurs in ________ thru the enzyme ______

liver; LCAT or lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase

158

least affected in fasting status of patient in lipid test

cholesterol

159

how are lipids transported in plasma

by proteins

160

lipids present in blood

fatty acids
TG
cholesterol
phospholipids
lipoproteins

161

fatty acids with double or triple bonds

unsaturated FA

162

lipids that cannot scatter light

cholesterol

163

lipid that helps in vit D synthesis

cholesterol

164

does not cause turbidity in serum

cholesterol

165

helps in synthesis of bile salts

cholesterol

166

considered as simplest lipids

non-esterified fatty acids

167

helps in syntesis of steroids

cholesterol

168

damaging effects of cholesterol

artherosclerosis

169

formed from lipid and protein

lipoproteins

170

bad fatty acid

saturated FA

171

other name for cardiac profile

lipid profile

172

percent of free cholesterol in body

30%

173

more protein than lipids

HDLc

174

minor lipoprotein

intermediate or ILDL
Lp (a)

175

specific proteins that comprise the protein portion of a lipoprotein and is constant

apolipoproteins

176

exogenous, 85-95%, largest but least dense lipoproteins

chylomicrons

177

manifested by white or creamy serum

high chylomicrons

178

endogenous lipoprotein, 50-65% TG

VLDLc

179

has particles large enough to scatter light

VLDLc

180

density of VLDLc

.95 to 1.006 kg/L

181

high VLDL can result to _____ plasma

turbid

182

also called beta lipoprotein

LDL

183

why is LDL called beta lipoprotein?

madaming apoB-100

184

density of LDL

1.019 to 1.063kg/L

185

also called alpha lipoprotein

HDL

186

why is HDL called alpha lipoprotein

mdaming apoA-I

187

abnormal lipoprotein found in patients with obstructive biliary disease

LpX

188

also called floating beta lipoprotein

beta VLDL

189

barely detectable in fasting human plasma

lipolytic enzyme

190

more lipids than protein

LDLc

191

bad cholesterol

LDLc

192

good cholesterol

HDLc

193

<0.95kg/L

density of chylomicrons

194

lung lubricants and body surfactant

phospholipids

195

VLDL when TG is <400mg/dL

TG/5

195

VLDL if TG is >400mg/dL

TG x .16

195

how are lipids extractedfeom serum?

Bloor's rgt

195

lipids that can scatter light

TG

202

major lipoproteins

chylomicron
HDL
LDL
VLDL

203

hydrolyzes TG in chylomicrons and VLDL

Lipoprotein lipase LPL

204

secreted by hepatocytes and associates with the surface membrane of nonparenchymal liver cells

hepatic triglyceride lipase

205

major function of plasma lipoproteins

transport TG and cholesterol imfrom site of exogenous origin and endogenous origin to sites if energy storage and utilization

206

exogenous means

made by intestine

207

endogenous means

made by liver

208

catalyzes the esterification of cholesterol

lecithin cholesterol acytransferase (LCAT)

209

type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia

high chylomicrons

210

type 2 hyperlipoproteinemia

high LDL

211

type 3 hyperlipoproteinemia

high IDL

212

type 4 hyperlipoproteinemia

high VLDL

213

type 5 hyperlipoproteinemia

high chylo and LDL

214

order of lipoproteins from negative to positive zone

chylo
LDL
IDL
VLDL
HDL

215

order of lipoproteins from most negative to most positive

HDL
VLDL
IDL
LDL
chylomicrons

216

preferred substrate of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase

HDL

217

color rgt in Liebermann-Burchard

acetic anhydride soln

218

end product of Liebermann-Burchard

cholestadienyl monosulfuric acid

219

rgt in Salkowski

Fe3+

220

color of end product of Liebermann-Burchard

bluish green

221

how is TG extracted in Abell-Kendall

zeolite

222

oxidation of glycerol in TG det is die to

periodate

223

HCHO + chromoporic acid >

pink chromoform

224

albumin band in SPE contains

albumin

225

alpha-1-globulin band in SPE contains

AAT
AFP
alpha-1-glycoprotein/orosomucoid

226

alpha-2-globulin band contains

alpha-2-MG
haptoglobin
pre-betalipoprotein

227

beta-1-lobulin band contains

transferrin
hemopexin
beta lipoprotein

228

gamma globulin band contains

IgG A M E D

229

dye binding methods for albumin

BCG
HABA

230

manifestation of nephrotic syndrome

enlarged filtering holes

231

proteins elevated in pregnancy

orosomucoid
ceruloplasmin
transferrin
fibrinogen

232

high CRP indicates

bacterial infection

233

low CRP

viral infection

234

dereased level of this protei. is associated with Down's syndrome

AFP

235

formed from deamination of amino acids

urea

236

endproduct of Fearon rxn

yellow diazine derivative

237

yellow diazine derivative of Fearon rxn is read at

540nm

238

color of picrate

yellow

239

bright red-orange complex of Jaffe rxn is read at

485nm

240

adding _____ to sx for UA det. icreases stability

fluoride or thymol

241

oxidation of UA is by

phosphotungstate

242

Caraway method is based on what propoerty of UA

reducing property

243

modification of Caraway method

Henry's method

244

Henry's modification method uses

sodium carbonate

245

mediates glucose production stimulated by glucagon

cAMP

246

whole blood tends to give decreased glucose reading conpared to plasma by _______

10-15%

247

sino pinakamagandang EB

basta hindi si Patsy