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Flashcards in Cell Deck (67):
1

A double stranded copy of a single stranded RNA molecule

DNA

2

A two layered membrane surrounding the chromosomes of a cell. The membrane has pores and its outer layer is continuous with the ER of the cell

Nuclear membrane/nuclear envelope

3

A spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell, made of DNA, RNA and protein

Synthesis of rRNA

Nucleoli

4

For building if ribosomes

Nucleoli

5

Loose network of bumpy threads that is scattered throughout the nucleus that is made of DNA and protein

Chromatin

6

Permeability of cell membrane

Semi-permeable

7

Its structure consists of two lipid layers arranged "tail to tail" in which protein molecules float

Plasma membrane

8

Permit lipid soluble materials to enter of leave cell by diffusion through cell membrane

Phospholipids

9

Provides greater stability to the membrane

Cholesterol

10

Scattered in the lipid bilayer and responsible for most of the specialized functions of the membrane

Proteins

11

Fluid inside the cell or cytoplasm

Cytosol/ intracellular fluid

12

Fluid outside cell

Extracellular fluid/ interstitial fluid

13

Permits passage of small water soluble materials

Pores

14

Help substances enter the cell

Enzymes or carriers

15

Binding sites for hormones or other chemical messengers

Receptor sites

16

Dentify cells of individuals as "self"

Antigens

17

Branching sugars attached to most proteins abutting the extracellular space making the cell surface fuzzy,sticky,sugar rich area

Glycoproteins

18

A semitransparent fluid that suspends the other elements

Cytosol

19

Composition of cells

CHON

20

are not functioning units, but instead are chemical substances that may or may not be present, depending on the specific cell type

Inclusions

21

are the metabolic machinery of the cell

organelles

22

organelles where proteins are produced

ribosomes

23

a series of membranes forming sacs and tubules that extends from the outer nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm

ER

24

consist of closely packed stacks of curved, membrane sacs

Golgi apparatus

25

functions of golgi apparatus

collects, modifies, packages, distributes CHON and lipids

26

are membrane-bound vesicles formed from the Golgi apparatus

intracellular digestive system

Lysosome

27

are small, membrane-bound vesicles containing enzymes that break down fatty acids, amino acids and H2o2

Perixosome

28

function of lysosome

digest any worn out or damaged cell/organelle

29

are small, bean-shaped organelles which are the major sites of ATP production within cells
aerobic respiration

Mitochondria

30

consist of proteins that support the cell, hold organelles in place, and enable the cell to change shape

Cytoskeleton

31

determines the overall shape of a cell

microtubules

32

strong, stable rope like

intermediate filaments

33

cell motility, producing changes in cell shape

microfilaments

34

small, cylindrical organelle composed of nine triplets, each consisting of 3 parallel microtubules joined together

centrioles

35

mobile threadlike projections (sweeps materials across cell surface (respiratory system) )

cilia

36

for motility or movement of sperm cell; tail

flagellum

37

lipid synthesis; detoxification of chemicals and drugs

sER

38

hydrophilic

polar heads

39

hydrophobic

polar tails

40

cells that are meter in length

nuerons

41

permeability of phospholipid

permeable

42

how does water pass through?

through protein

43

bones and muscles of the cell

cytoskeleton

44

formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources

gluconeogenesis

45

substances are transported across the membrane without any energy (ATP) input from the cell

Passive transport

46

Membrane Transport mechanisms

Passive Transport
Active transport

47

movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration

diffusion

48

the tendency of the solutes, such as ions or molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration of that solute in solution

simple diffusion

49

the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the cell membrane, from a region of higher water concentration to one of lower water concentration

osmosis

50

a carrier-mediated (protein channels) transport process that moves substances into and out of cells from a higher to a lower concentration

facilitated diffusion

51

a carrier-mediated process that moves substances across the cell membrane from regions of lower concentration to those of higher concentration against a concentration gradient (uses ATP)

Active Transport

52

the movement of substances from lower concentrated area to higher concentrated area by protein carriers that uses ATP

Solute Pumping

53

Examples of Solute pumping

Sodium-Potassium Pump, amino acids

54

substances that cannot get though the plasma membrane in any other way are transported with the help of ATP

Bulk Transport

55

Two types of Bulk transport

Exocytostis
Endocytosis

56

moves substances out of the cell

Exocytosis

57

includes ATP requiring processes that take up, or engulf, extra cellular substances by enclosing thm in a small membranous vesicle

Endocytosis

58

examples of endocytosis

phagocytosis
pinocytosis

59

cell-eating

phagocytosis

60

cell-drinking

pinocytosis

61

produces 2 daughter cells identical to the parent cell; each of these cells will have 46 chromosomes

it has no resting phase

mitosis

62

time between cell divisions
DNA is found as thin threads of chromatin in the nucleus
DNA replication occurs

Interphase

63

part of immune cells; monocytes

macrophages

64

3 phases in interphase

G1, S, G2

65

8-10 hrs

G1

66

8 hrs

S

67

4-6 hrs

G2