Flashcards in Cell and Tissue Injury Deck (27):
__________ is growth of cells, while ___________ is increase in the number of cells. Both can be physiologic or pathologic.
______ is the shrinkage of cells.
Metaplasia is the __________.
reversible change in which one adult/differentiated cell type is replaced by another adult/differentiated cell type.
The esophagus is usually _______ tissue, but can undergo metaplasia in response to reflux.
stratified squamous epithelium
Metaplasias are named for the ________.
tissues that they differentiate to, not the tissues they arose from
The two types of reversible cell injuries that we need to know are _________.
cellular swelling (from disrupted ion pumps) and fatty changes (accumulated lipid vacuoles, not adiopocytes)
The two types of irreversible cell injuries that we need to know are __________.
apoptosis and necrosis
Pyknosis is _____.
nuclear shrinkage and increased basophilia
Karyorrhexis is _________.
Karyolysis is __________.
Coagulative necrosis is characterized by _______.
dead cells that are pale; architecture in place for several days; found in MIs
Liquefactive necrosis occurs when ________.
the cytolytic enzymes released by leukocytes in response to a bacterial or fungal infection digests surrounding tissue
Caseous necrosis is a result of ___________.
Caseating necroses are distinguished from liquefactive necroses by the presence of ______ in caseating necroses.
Activated pancreatic lipases reacting with fats to produce fatty acids that precipitate with calcium is a form of necrosis called ________.
The mechanism of fibrinoid necrosis is characterized by _________.
complexes of antibodies getting stuck in vascular endothelium, which then reacts with fibrin
Tissues with ___________ are better able to withstand ischemic injury.
greater glycolytic capacity
List the six methods of cell injury listed on slide 41.
1) ATP depletion
2) Mitochondrial damage
3) Influx of calcium
4) ROS accumulation
5) Increased permeability of membrane
6) Accumulation of damaged DNA
O2 is converted to H2O2 by _____.
H2O2 is decomposed by _________.
glutathione peroxidase and catalase
What are the pro-apoptotic enzymes in the intrinsic pathway?
BAX and BAK
What are the anti-apoptotic enzymes in the intrinsic pathway?
BCL2, BCL-XL, and MCL1
Mitochondrial apoptosis proceeds through caspase __, while extrinsic apoptosis goes through caspase ___.
Blood is considered a ______ tissue.
Increased calcium influx is an example of a _______ injury.
The uterus expands during pregnancy via _________.