cell bio test 4 GI II and III Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in cell bio test 4 GI II and III Deck (60):
1

4 layers of GI tube

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa/adventitia

2

mucosa of GI tube

epithelium w/basal lamina, lamina propria, muscularis mucosae

3

lamina propria of mucosa contains what/

connective tissue, glands, blood vessels, lymphatic tissue, lymphatic vessel endowment (segmental differences exist)

4

how does muscularis mucosae of mucosa increase surface area of GI tube?

contraction of muscle wrinkles the mucosa, this increases the surface area

5

describe the submucosa of GI tube

glands present in exophagus and duodenum, blood and lymphatics, submucosal or meissner's plexus

6

describe muscularis externa

two layers of smooth muscle, contraction=peristalsis, myenteric plexus

7

What is the submucosal (Meissner's) plexus

parasympathetic postganglionic neruons and sympathetic postganglionic fibers--regulates glands, blood flow, muscularis mucosae, and is sensory (mechano and chemo)

8

What is myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus?

located in muscularis externa, parasympathetic postgangionic neurons and sympathetic postganglionic fibers, controls peristalsis

9

What is achalasia?

damage to neurons in myenteric plexus causes constriction of LES. Limits passage of food into stomach

10

what layer of the esophagus has stratified squamous, nonkeratinized epithelium?

mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, serosa/adventitia

11

Where are cardiac esophageal glands found in the esophagus?

lamina propria

12

where are esophageal glands proper (seromucous) found?

submucosa

13

What portion of muscularis externa is skeletal?

upper 5%

14

what portion of muscularis externa is smooth muscle?

lower 50%

15

adventitia or serosa? Thoracic or abdominal esophagus?

thoracic=adventitia, abdominal=serosa

16

What is Barrett's esophagus?

acid reflux causes remodeling of lower esophagus to make metaplastic columnar epithelium with goblet cells. This mucous is to protect esophagus from the acid. Goblet cells appear blue with PAS/acian blue stains. Needs to be monitored for adenocarcinomas!

17

How will cancer spread in esophagus?

vertically

18

regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, pylorus

19

Describe rugae of the stomach

longitudinal folds in undistended stomach, mucosa and submucosa form the folds

20

describe mucosa of the stomach

surface epithelium-simple columnar, mucous cells; gastric pits; glands empty into gastric pits; gland regions-isthmus, neck and fundus; lymphatic vessels (very few) deep in lamina propria and muscularis mucosae

21

muscularis externa of stomach

inner oblique layer of smooth muscle-only present in certain regions of the stomach; middle circular layer of smooth muscle-thickened at pylorus

22

three regions of gastric glands

three regions: isthmus, neck and fundus (base)

23

cells in isthmus region of gastric gland

surface epithelial cells-secrete mucus, parietal (oxyntic) cells-secrete HCL and intrinsic factor, stem cells

24

cells in neck region of gastric gland

mucous, more parietal and less chief cells, some enteroendocrine

25

cells in base region of gastric gland

chief (zymogenic) cells-secret pepsinogen, enteroendocrine cells, mucus, and few parietal cells

26

describe unique part of cardia portion of stomach

short gastric pits, long glands in lamina propria

27

unique part of pylorus

deep gastric pits, short glands, enteroendocrine cells (ex: G cells secrete gastrin)

28

how does stomach epithelium defend itself against stomach environment?

mucus and bicarbonate layer, surface cells secrete those things, cell renewal, alkaline tide, microcirculation, sensory nerves, prostaglandins

29

what is the pyloric sphincter?

thickening of muscularis externa-mainly inner circular layer- at the gastroduodenal junction

30

What structures increase surface area of small intestine?

plicae circulares (permanent circular folds of submucosa and mucosa), intestinal villi (processes of mucosa), microvilli

31

what are the signature features of gluten enteropathy (celiac sprue)?

enterocytes in disarray, villus atrophy, crypt hyperplasia, inflammation of lamina propria

32

mucosa of small intestine

basal lamina, mainly absorptive columnar cells with well-developed striated (brush) borders, goblet cells, intraepithelial T cells

33

lamina propria of small intestinal mucosa

loose CT, intestinal glands, many blood and lymphatic vessels, smooth muscle cells, leukocytes and plasma cells

34

what are the cells types of the intestinal glands (crypts of lieberkuhn)?

paneth cells (secrete lysozyme, defensins, TNF alpha), enteroendocrine cells, stem cells toward base

35

submucosa of small intestine

moderately dense CT, submucosal plexus, blood and lymph vessels

36

What are Brunner's glands?

duodenal glands- secrete mucus and human epidermal growth factor--located in submucosa

37

jejunum vs ileum

Wall of jejunum is thicker than ileum and jejunum is more richly vascularized; hence, jejunum is redder than ileum in a living person

38

where are Peyer's patches?

ileum

39

what are M cells

antigen transporting cells

40

plicae circulares is in?

small intestine mucosa

41

plicae semilunares where?

large intestine mucosa

42

absence of mucosa--large or small intestine?

large

43

Which has more intestinal glands? Large or small intestine

large

44

Where are goblet cells more numerous?

more distal

45

lamina propria of what GI area has no lymphatic channels?

large intestine

46

where is the teniae coli?

large intestine

47

What has lymphatic nodules in lamina propria and submucosa?

vermiform appendix

48

What is fecalith?

a monolithic poop stuck in your appendix. Can cause appendicitis

49

Rectum has what kind of folds?

longitudinal folds-temporary

50

what is a plicae transveraes recti?

transverse rectal fold in rectum

51

does rectum have teniae coli?

no, because they spread out and form a complete layer around muscularis externa

52

below pectinate line?

stratified squamous epithelium

53

where are anal cushions?

left lateral, right anterior, and right posterior

54

what hurts, internal or external hemorrhoid?

external. Internal are not on skin, no pain receptors

55

know about anal abscesses and fistula in ano

yep

56

what is a false diverticula?

outpocketing of colonic wall--only involves mucosa and submucosa.

57

what is more likely to develop adenocarcinoma? Tubular or villous adenoma?

villous

58

What is ulcerative colitis?

only large intestine. inflammatory bowel disease that increases lymphatic densitiy

59

Crohn's disease?

can be mouth to anus, all layers of wall, fistula may form

60

Hirschprung's disease?

agangliosis of myenteric and submucosal plexuses--always involves rectum, but may involve more proximal segments