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Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (32):
1

Eukaryotic cell

Cell wall not always present
Cell wall made out of cellulose
DNA is located in nucleus
Has membrane bound organelle

2

Prokaryotic cell

Cell wall is made out of Murien
Contain circular DNA called plasmids
DNA is in a singular free floating loop

3

Ribosomes

Site of protein synthesis

4

Mitochondria

Where respiration takes place

5

The equation for respiration

Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water + energy

6

Equation for photosynthesis

Carbon dioxide + water -> glucose + oxygen

7

Advantages of light microscopes

2000x bigger
Cheap
Can magnify life objects as oppose to electron microscopes

8

Equation for magnification

Magnification= image/object

9

Asexual reproduction

Requires only one parent and will create identical clones

10

What do you need when growing bacteria?

25 degrees
Provide nutrients (agar or broth)

11

Antibiotic

A medicine that inhibits the growth of it destroys microorganisms

12

Antisceptic

Preventing the growth of disease causing bacteria

13

Disinfectant

A chemical liquid that destroys all bacteria

14

Differentiation

When cells become specialised for a particular function. Plant cells can differentiate all the way through their life whereas animal cells can only differentiate at an early stage and then are stuck

15

The cell cycle

1. Cell growth
2. Nucleus divides also known as mitosis
3. Cell membrane divides and now the cells are two spectate clones

16

Nucleus

Chromosomes stored inside

17

Chromosome

Large molecules of DNA that has a double helix structure. Always 23 pairs or 46 individual

18

Genes

Short sections of DNA that code for one protein or characteristic

19

Gametes

Sex cells, the egg and sperm

20

Mitosis

Chromosomes are separated into identical sets, then they pull apart and end up in its own nucleus

21

Stage 1 of mitosis

Growth and replication

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Stage 2 of mitosis

The chromosomes line up and begin to pull apart

23

Stage 3 of mitosis

The nucleus divides into 2 identical nuclei

24

Stem cells

A cell that can become any other cell, they are undifferentiated

25

What types of stem cells are there?

Embryonic which can change into mostly any cell
Adult stem cell these can become cells that need to be replaced more often

26

Diffusion

The spreading of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration down a concentration gradient until equilibrium is met. This can only happen in fluid and it is a passive process which means is required no energy

27

What affects diffusion?

Temperature-more kinetic energy
Surface Area-More space for movement
Gradient- the difference between them

28

Osmosis

A special form of diffusion that only talks about water. The movement of water from a dilute to a concentrated solution through a partly permeable membrane.

29

Hypertonic

Concentration of solutes in the solution surrounding the cell is greater than inside the cell. This may cause the cell to plasmolyzed or in the case of an animal cell, shrivel up.

30

Hypotonic

Concentration of solutes surrounding the cell is lower than inside the cell. This causes the cell to become turgid or in the case of an animal cell even burst.

31

Isotonic

The concentration of solutes both inside the cell and outside are the same. The cells are flaccid.

32

Active transport

Transport that require energy against the concentration gradient