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Flashcards in Cell Biology Deck (39):
1

What is therapeutic Cloning? and its benefits?

An embryo being made to have the same genetic material as the patient.
This means the body shouldn't reject the new cells.

2

One risk of using stem cells in medical treatments.

cells may become contaminated with a virus.

3

Where can stem cells be found in the body?

Bone marrow, brain, blood vessels, liver.

4

Why can't all body cells be used to grow different types of cell?

because most cells are already differentiated .

5

Why are stem cells cloned?

In order to be differentiated into specialised cells to use in medicine and research.

6

Three benefits of producing cloned plants from stem cells.

produces clones of plants quickly and cheaply. Grows rare species. grow crops of identical plants with desired features for farmers like: disease resistance.

7

What are the growing areas of a plants called?

Meristems.

8

What chemical molecule are chromosomes made of?

DNA molecules.

9

Define specialisation

As an organism develops, some of its cells develop different structures and change into different types of cells. Allowing the cells to carry out specific functions.

10

Structure and function of phloem.

Very few sub cellular structures and holes in the end cell walls allow dissolved sugars to move from one cell to another.

11

Structure and function of xylem.

hollow in the centre and have no end cell walls form a continuous tube for transporting water from roots to leaves.

12

Structure and function of root hair cell.

long finger-like projection increases surface area for absorption of water.

13

Magnification formula.

size of image (over)
Real size of object

14

Subcellular structures in animal cells and their functions.

Rigid cell wall - supports the cell and strengthens it.
Chloroplasts - photosynthesis makes food for the plant.

15

Function of Nucleus

Contains genetic material that controls activities of the cells.

16

Function of Cytoplasm.

Where the chemical reactions happen - contains enzymes.

17

Function of cell membrane.

holds cells together.
controls what goes in and out.

18

What are Prokaryotic Organisms?

Smaller and simpler than Eukaryotic cells.
Bacteria cells.

19

What are eukaryotic Organisms?

Made up of many cells.
Animal and plant cells.

20

Name 5 sub cellular structures that both plant and animal cells have.

Nucleus
Cytoplasm
Cell membrane
Mitochondria
Ribosomes

21

What three things do plants cells have that animal cells don't?

Rigid Cell wall
Permanent vacuole
Chloroplasts

22

Where is the genetic material found in:
Animal cells.
Bacterial cells

Nucleus

23

What type of organisms are bacteria?

Prokaryotic

24

Which gives a higher resolution?
Light microscope or an electron microscope.

Electron microscope

25

What is cell differentiation?

Process in which a cell changes to become specialised for a specific job.

26

Give three ways that a sperm cell is adapted for swimming to an egg cell.

Long tail and streamlined head to help it swim to the egg.
Lots of mitochondria for energy.
Enzymes in its head in order to digest through the egg cell membrane.

27

Draw a diagram of a nerve cell. Why is it this shape?

Specialised for rapid signalling: carry electrical signals form one part of the body to another.
They're long and have branched connections at their ends to connect to other nerve cells and form a network.

28

What are chromosomes?

Coiled up lengths of DNA molecules.

29

What is the cell cycle?

Makes new Cells for growth, development and repair.

30

What is mitosis used for by multicellular organisms?

To complete the cell cycle and produce two identical daughter cells.

31

Give two ways that embryonic stem cells could be used to cure diseases.

Could replace faulty blood cells
Could replace faulty cells in sick people.
Insulin-producing cells for diabetics.

32

Why might some people be against the use of human embryos in stem cell research?

Some people feel as though human embryos are each a potential human life.
Others think scientists should focus on finding other sources of stem cells so embryos wouldn't have to be used.

33

What is diffusion?

Diffusion is the spreading out of particles from an are of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

34

Name three substances that can diffuse through cell membranes, and two that can't.

CAN:
Oxygen, glucose, water, amino acids
CANNOT:
Starch and proteins.

35

What type of molecules move by osmosis?

Water

36

Give the two main differences between active transport and diffusion.

Active transport requires energy.
Active transport moves against the concentration gradient (particles move from a lower to higher conc)

37

Give three adaptations of exchange surfaces that increases the efficiency of diffusion.

Thin membranes - only a short distance to diffuse
Large surface area - lots can diffuse at once.
In animals Lots of blood vessels to get things into and out of blood quickly.

38

Give two ways that the villi in the small intestine are adapted for absorbing digested food.

Single layer of surface cells
A very good blood supply to assist quick absorption.

39

Explain how leaves are adapted to maximise the amount of carbon dioxide that gets to their cells.

The underneath of the leaf is covered in lots of little holes called the stomata which the carbon dioxide diffuses through.
The walls of the insides of the cells also have air spaces inside the leaf increase the area of this surface so theres more chance for carbon dioxide to get into cells.