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Flashcards in Cell Communication Deck (105):
1

Endocrine glands secrete -- (chemical messengers) into blood

hormones

2

Hormones act on --, which must have appropriate -- to bind the hormone and bring about a physiological response

target cells, receptors

3

The -- is composed of endocrine glands located throughout the body and generally regulates activities that require -- rather than sped

endocrine system, duration

4

comprise most hormones, including those secreted by hypothalamus, anterior and posterior pituitary, pancreas, and parathyroid

peptides

5

type of hormone derived from the amino acid tyrosine and include the hormones secreted by the thyroid gland and adrenal medulla

amines

6

adrenomedullary hormones are called

catecholamines

7

type of hormone that are neutral lipids derived from cholesterol; include hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex, ovaries and testes

steroids

8

-- and -- hormones are lipid soluble (lipophilic)

steroids and thyroid hormones

9

How are water soluble hormones transported?

dissolved in the plasma

10

How are lipophilic hormones transported?

bound to plasma proteins

11

How do hormones generally produce their effect?

by altering intracellular protein activity

12

Hormones bind with specific --

target cell receptors

13

Hormones bind to target cell receptors --> start chain of events in target cell --> which then

produce effects characteristic to that hormone

14

Based on the location of their receptors, hormones can be classified into -- and --

plasma membrane receptors and intracellular receptors

15

hydrophilic peptides and catecholamines, being poorly soluble in lipid are unable to cross the lipid bilayer and bind to specific --

plasma membrane receptors

16

lipophilic steroids and thyroid hormones cross the lipid bilayer and bind to specific --

intracellular receptors (in cytoplasm)

17

T or F: Hormone responses can differ depending on the target cell

True

18

3 types of cell surface receptors

ligand-gated ion channels, G-protein linked receptors, enzyme linked receptors

19

Acetylcholine receptor is an example of --

ligand-gated ion channels

20

What do guanyl nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) act as?

molecular switches

21

G proteins are active when -- is bound

GTP

22

G proteins are inactive when -- is bound due to action of intrinsic GTPase

GDP

23

insulin is an example of --

enzyme-linked receptors

24

What are the three types of extracellular signaling molecules?

hormones, paracrine signals, neurotransmitters

25

Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is formed from ATP by -- an enzyme that is activated by a G protein

adenylyl cyclase

26

cAMP is a -- messenger

second

27

most of the effects of cAMP involve binding to and activating

cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA)

28

activated PKA phosphorylates specific proteins on -- or -- residues, leading to some physiological change

serine, threonine

29

Why so may steps in the Glycogenolytic cascade?

amplification

30

each molecule of epinephrine binding to its receptor on the liver plasma membrane can release -- molecules of -- into the bloodstream

10,000, glucose

31

-- dephosphorylate key enzymes in glycogenolytic cascade

phosphatases

32

calcium binding protein

calmodulin

33

PIP2

phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphosphate

34

DAG

diacylyglycerol

35

IP3

inositol trisphosphate

36

TNF can trigger

Tumor necrosis Factor can trigger apoptosis

37

signaling pathways such as the one involved in apoptosis can be very complex and interlinked

cross-talk

38

vessels get wider

vasodilation

39

Where is TSH found?

anterior pituitary

40

Where is FSH found?

anterior pituitary

41

Where is LH found?

anterior pituitary

42

Where is ACTH found?

anterior pituitary

43

Where is GH found?

anterior pituitary

44

Where is prolactin found?

anterior pituitary

45

Where is melanocyte found?

anterior pituitary

46

Where is endorphins and enkephalins found?

anterior pituitary

47

activates thyroid gland

Thyrotropin (TSH)

48

stimulates maturation of ovarian follicles in females; stimulates spermatogenesis in males

Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH)

49

triggers ovulation and ovarian production of estrogens and progesterone in females; stimulates testosterone production in males

Luteinizing hormone (LH)

50

stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol

Corticotropin (ACTH)

51

stimulates protein synthesis and growth

Growth hormone (GH)

52

stimulates milk production

prolactin

53

melanin production

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

54

pain control

endorphins and enkephalins

55

anterior pituitary is controlled by the release and release-inhibiting neurohormones of --

the hypothalamus

56

posterior pituitary receives and releases --

2 hypothalamic hormones

57

stimulates contraction of uterus, flow of milk, inter individual bonding

oxytocin

58

promotes water conservation by kidneys

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin

59

Where is thymosin found?

thymus (which diminishes in adults)

60

activates immune system T cells

thymosin

61

Where is insulin found?

Pancreas (islets of Langerhans)

62

Where is glucagon found?

Pancreas (islets of Langerhans)

63

Where is somatostatin found?

Pancreas (islets of Langerhans)

64

stimulates cells to take up and use glucose

insulin

65

stimulates liver to release glucose

glucagon

66

slows release of insulin and glucagon and digestive tract functions

somatostatin

67

Where is melatonin found?

pineal gland

68

regulates biological rhythms

melatonin

69

Where is thyroxine found?

thyroid gland

70

Where is calcitonin found?

thyroid gland

71

increase cell metabolism; essential for growth and neural development

thyroxine

72

stimulates incorporation of calcium into bone

calcitonin

73

Where is PTH found?

parathyroid gland

74

stimulates release of calcium from bone and absorption of calcium by kidney and gut

parathyroid hormone (PTH)

75

Where is cortisol found?

Adrenal Gland - cortex

76

Where is aldosterone found?

Adrenal Gland - cortex

77

Where is sex steroids found?

Adrenal Gland - cortex

78

Where is epinephrine found?

Adrenal Gland - medulla

79

mediates metabolic responses to stress

cortisol

80

involved in salt and water balance

aldosterone

81

stimulate immediate fight-or-flight response

epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)

82

development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics

testosterone

83

development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics

estrogen

84

supports pregnancy

progesterone

85

an intercellular chemical messenger that travels within body tissue

hormone

86

hormones can travel farther than -- which are also chemical messengers

neurotransmitters

87

hormones travel between what two types of cells

endocrine cells and target cells

88

produces and/or stores hormones

endocrine cells

89

T or F: a target cell likely has more than one type of receptor and secondary messenger

TRUE

90

a chemical message that is released into surrounding extracellular fluids that exert only localized effects (paracrine, autocrine)

local hormones

91

a hormone that is released by mast cells; it diffuses into damaged tissue to dilate local blood vessels as part of the inflammation response

histamine

92

a chemical message released into the circulatory system with the goal of reaching more "distant" cells

circulating hormone

93

organs composed of clusters of secretory cells

glands

94

release secretions to outside of the body through ducts (e.g. salivary and sweat glands)

exocrine glands

95

"ductless" glands that store and release hormones into extracellular fluid from which it may enter the body's circulatory system

endocrine glands

96

What two body systems mediate homeostasis?

nervous and endocrine systems

97

Hormones might be secreted by dispersed cells such as --, --, --

nerve cells (neurohormones), digestive tract cells, mast cells in tissue

98

TRF

thyrotropin-releasing factor

99

GnRF

gonadotropin-releasing factor

100

CRF

corticotropin-releasing factor

101

GRF

growth hormone -releasing factor

102

200 AA polypeptide. stimulates cells to take up AAs for protein synthesis. promotes body growth by stimulating live cells to produce somatomedins that stimulate bond and cartilage growth

growth hormone

103

helps in pregnancy and stimulates production and secretion of milk in females; helps control endocrine function of testes in males

prolactin

104

controls skin pigmentation; also believed to control unidentified functions

melanocyte-stimulating hormone

105

Adrenocorticotropin, MS< endorphins, and enkephalins are produced by cleavage -- or large, parent polypeptide called --

proteolysis, propio-melanocortin