Cell Communication Flashcards Preview

AP Biology > Cell Communication > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cell Communication Deck (14):
1

What are the three stages of cell signaling?

Reception
Transduction
Response

2

Reception

The target cell's detection of a signal molecule coming from outside the cell

3

Transduction

The conversion of the signal to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response

4

Response

The specific cellular response to the signal molecule

5

Receptors are found in two places. Where are they found?

Intracellular receptors
Plasma membrane receptors

6

Intracellular receptors

Found inside the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm nucleus. Signal molecule must cross the plasma membrane and therefore must be hydrophobic, like the steroid hormone testosterone

7

Plasma membrane receptors

Located on the plasma membrane, bind to water soluble ligands

7

What does a G protein bind to?

G protein-coupled receptor

8

Receptor tyrosine kinases

A second type of membrane protein

9

Phosphorylation cascade

Signal transduction pathways are usually a multi step one, the possibility of greater amplifying the signal exists. At each step enzymes (protein kinases) phosphorylate and activate many proteins on the next level.
This greatly enhances the signal, allowing for a large cellular response.

10

Many signaling pathways involve small, nonprotein water-soluble molecules or ions called

Second messengers

11

What are the two types of second messengers?

Calcium ions and cyclic AMP

12

What do second messengers do?

Once activated, can initiate a phosphorylation cascade resulting in a cellular response.

13

Apoptosis

A program of controlled cell suicide
(Triggered by signals that activate cascade of "suicide" proteins in the cells)
Is a normal part of development in vertebrates and is essential for normal nervous system, for operation of the immune system, and normal morphogenesis of hands and feet in humans.