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Flashcards in Cell Cycle Deck (21):
1

All body cells except gametes; contain 46 chromosomes

Somatic cells

2

Sperm and egg cells; contains 23 chromosomes

Gametes

3

What attaches two sister chromatids?

A centromere

4

Division of the cells nucleus

Mitosis

5

The division of the cells cytoplasm

Cytokinesis

6

The phase in which the cell grows while carrying out cell functions unique to its cell type

G1 phase

7

The cell continues to carry out its unique functions but duplicates its chromosomes. It faithfully makes a copy of DNA that makes up the cells chromosomes

S phase

8

The period after the chromosomes have been duplicated and just before mitosis. The cell continues to grow and carry out its functions during this time

G2 phase

9

Chromatin become more tightly coiled into discrete chromosomes and nucleoli appear. Mitotic spindles begin to form in the cytoplasm

Prophase

10

Nuclear envelope begins to fragment, allowing microtubules to attach to the chromosomes. Two chromatids of each chromosome are held together by the centromere, which are attached by kinetochores

Prometaphase

11

Microtubules move the chromosomes to the metaphase plate at the equator of the cell. Centrioles have migrated to opposite poles in the cell, riding along on the developing spindle

Metaphase

12

Sister chromatids begin to separate, pulled apart by motor molecules. The cell elongates, and nonkinetochore microtubules ratchet apart. By the end of this phase, the opposite ends of the cell contain complete an equal sets of chromosomes

Anaphase

13

The nuclear envelope reforms around the set of chromosomes, and chromatin fiber of the chromosomes become less condensed.

Telophase

14

During this the cytoplasm of the cell is divided. Prokaryotes replicate their genome by binary fission rather than mitosis.

Cytokinesis

15

The protein enzymes that control the cell cycle. They exist in the cells at all times but are active only when they are connected to cyclin proteins.

Kinases

16

Microtubule organizing center

Centrosome

17

A radial array of short microtubules extending from each centrosome

Aster

18

The cell cycle clock has these were the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received

Checkpoints

19

For most cells, which checkpoint seems to be the most important?

G1 checkpoint (this checkpoint will usually allow the cell to complete the S, G2, and M phases and divide)

20

Two types of regulatory proteins that are involved in cell cycle control

Cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases (Cdks)

21

IKI + Starch =

Blue colour